Blessings of Jumuah

Excellence of Reciting Durud Sharif on Friday

The Prophet of Rahmah, the Intercessor of Ummah ﷺ said, ‘The one who recites Durud Sharif 200 times upon me on Friday, his 200 years’ sins will be forgiven.’ (Kanz-ul-‘Ummah, pp. 256, vol. 1, Hadis 2238)

Jumuah
Jumuah

Dear Islamic brothers! How fortunate we are Allahعزوجل  has blessed us with the favor of Jumu’a-tul-Mubarak for the sake of His beloved Rasul ﷺ. Regretfully, like other ordinary days, we spend even Friday heedlessly whereas it is a day of Eid, it is superior to all other days, the fire of Hell is not blazed up on Friday and the gates of Hell are not opened on Friday night. On the day of resurrection, Friday will be brought in the form of a bride; the fortunate Muslim dying on Friday attains the rank of martyrdom and remains safe from the torment of the grave.
The renowned Mufassir, Hakim-ul-Ummat, Mufti Ahmad Yar Khanرحمۃُ اللہ تَعالیٰ عَلیہ  says, “The Sawab of the Hajj performed on Friday is equivalent to that of 70 Hajj as the Sawab of a single good deed performed on Friday is enhanced 70 times.” (As Friday is an immensely sacred day, therefore,) The punishment of a sin committed on Friday as also increased 70 times. (Derived from Mirah, vol. 2, pp. 323, 325, 336)

How can words express the excellence of Friday! By the name of Jumuah, Allah عزوجل has revealed a complete Surah that is present in the 28th part of the Holy Quran. Allah عزوجل says the 9th Ayah of Sura-tul-Jumuah:

Jumuah
Jumuah

When did our Prophet Perform his First Jumuah Salah?

Hadrat ‘Allamah Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Naim-ud-Din Muradabadi  عَلیہِ رَحمَۃُ اللہِ الھَادِی says, “When Makki Madani Mustafa ﷺ was on his way to Madinah for migration, he stopped at a place called Quba at the time of “Chasht” on Monday, 12th Rabi’-ul-Awwal. He ﷺ stayed there for four days (Monday to Thursday); during the stay, he ﷺ laid the foundation stone of a Masjid. On Friday, he ﷺ proceeded towards Madinah. When they reached the area of the Bani Salim Ibn-e-‘Awf, it was time to offer the Jumuah Salah; people consecrated that place of Masjid where the Holy Prophet ﷺ offered the (first) Jumuah Salah and delivered a sermon.” (Khazain-ul-‘Irfan, p. 665)
اَلحمدُللہ عَزوجَل! The glorious Masjid-e-Jumuah still exists there; the visitors behold the Masjid for the attainment of blessings and offer Nafl Salah over there.

Meaning of the Word Jumuah

Jumuah
Jumuah

The renowned Mufassir, Hakim-ul-Ummat Hadrat Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan عَلَیہِ رَحمۃُ الحَنان writes, “As all the creatures assembled in their beings on this day and the completion of the creation took place on the very same day, clay for Hadrat Sayyiduna Adamعلیہ السلام  was also collected on this day; similarly, people congregate and perform the Friday

Salah on this day; therefore, it is called Jumuah on account of the aforementioned reasons. Before the advent of Islam, the Arabs used to call it ‘Arubah.” (Mirat-ul Manajih, pp. 317, vol. 2)

How Many Times Exalted Rasul Offered Jumuah Salah?

The Rasul of mankind, the peace of our heart and mind, the most generous and kind ﷺ offered almost 500 Jumuah Salah in his apparent life as offering of Jumuah Salah commenced subsequent to the migration after which the total period of the apparent life of the Holy Prophet ﷺ is ten years and there are 500 Fridays in ten years’ period. (Mirah, vol. 2, pp. 346, Lam’at, vol. 4, pp. 190, Hadis 1415)

Seal on Heart

Makki Madani Mustafa ﷺ said, “The one abandoning three Jumuah’s Salah out of laziness, Allah عزوجل will seal his heart.” (Jami’ Tirmizi, pp. 38, vol. 2, Hadis 500)
Jumuah Salah is Fard-e-‘Ain and its Fardiyyat (obligation) is more emphatic than that of Sala-tul-Zuhar; the denier of its obligation is Kafir (disbeliever). (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 5, vol. 3, Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 762, vol. 1)

The Excellence of Wearing Turban on Friday

The Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “Indeed, Allah عزوجل and His Angels send Durud upon those who wear turban on Friday.” (Majma’-uz-Zawaid, pp. 394, vol. 2, Hadis 3075)

Cure is Bestowed

Hadrat Sayyiduna Humaid bin ‘Abd-ur-Rahmanرَضیَ اللہ عَنھَا  narrates via his father, “The one who trims his nails on Friday, Allah عزوجل will remove his disease and bless him with cure.” (Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah, pp. 65, vol. 2)

Protection from Afflictions up to Ten Days

Sadr-us-Shariah Hadrat Maulana Muhammad Amjab ‘Ali A’zami رَحمَۃُ اللہ تَعَالیٰ عَلَیہ  states, “A blessed Hadis says that the one who trims his nails on Friday, Allah عزوجل will protect him from afflictions up to the next Friday including three more days, i.e. ten days in total.
In accordance with one more narration, ‘The one trimming his nails on Friday, mercy will approach (him) and (his) sins will be removed. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 226, part. 16, Dur-re-Mukhtar-o-Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 668, 669, vol. 9)

It is preferable to have hair and nails trimmed after Jumuah Salah. (Durr-e-Mukhtar ma’ Rad-dul-Muhtar, V9, P581, Multan)

A Cause of Reduction in Sustenance

Sadr-ush-Shari’ah Hadrat Maulana Muhammad Amjad ‘Ali A’zami رَحمۃُاللہ تَعَالیٰ عَلَیہ says, “Although it is preferable to trim nails on Friday, yet if the nails are very long; one should not wait till Friday as growing long nails is a cause of reduction in sustenance.” (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 225, part. 16)

Angels Write the Names of the Fortunate Ones

The beloved and blessed Prophet ﷺ said, “On the day of Friday, the angels deputed at gateway of the Masjid write the names of comers. The early comer is like the one who gives Sadaqah of a camel in the path of Allah عَزوجَل. The next comer is like the one who gives a cow and then the next one is like the donor of a sheep; then the next one is like the donor of a hen and then the next one is like that of an egg. When the Imam sits (to deliver the sermon), the angels close the books of deeds and come to listen to the sermon.” (Sahih Bukhari, pp. 319, vol. 1,  Hadiš 929)

The renowned Mufassir, Hakim-ul-Ummat Hazrat Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Na‘imi رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “Some Scholars have said that the angels stay (at the doors of the Masjid) from dawn whereas some other opine they stay from sunrise; the stronger opinion, however, is that they come and stay when the sun begins to decline (from zenith) because it is the instant when timing of Jumuah (Salah) begins.” The foregoing narration also clearly indicates that those angels know the names of every comer. It is noteworthy that if 100 people enter the Masjid initially, they all would be regarded as the first-comer. (Mirat-ul Manajih, pp. 335, vol. 2)

The Enthusiasm for Offering Jumuah Salah in the First Century

Hujja-tul-Islam Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Muhammad Ghazali رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “During the first century, people used to proceed towards the Main Masjid at the time of Sahri and after Salah-tul-Fajr holding lamps in their hands for offering Salah-tul Jumuah. There used to be so huge crowd in the streets that it would seem as if it was the day of Eid, but gradually, this spirit died out. Thus, it is said that the very first Bid’at(innovation) that evolved in Islam is the abandonment of early proceeding towards the Main Masjid. Regretfully, the Muslims do not feel ashamed that Jews proceed towards their places of worship in the early morning on Saturday and Sunday; further, seekers of worldly luxuries also head towards the marketplace in the early morning for trading and earning wealth; so, why don’t the seekers of the Hereafter compete with such people!” (Ihya-ul-‘Ulum, pp. 246, vol. 1)

Hajj of the Poor

Hazrat Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas رَضی اللہ عَنھُمَا narrates that the Prophet of mankind, the Peace of our heart and mind, the most generous and kind ﷺ said:

Jumuah
Jumuah

Sala-tul-Jumuah is the Hajj of Masakin (destitute) (Tarikh-e-Dimshq, vol. 38, pp. 431) and in another narration, it is stated that Sala-tul-Jumuah is the Hajj of Fuqarah (poor).
(Kanz-ul-‘Ummah, pp. 290, vol. 7, Hadis 21027)

Proceeding for Jumuah Salah early is Equivalent to Hajj

The beloved and blessed Prophet ﷺ said, “No doubt, there is one Hajj and one ‘Umrah for you on every Friday. Therefore, early proceeding for Sala-tul-Jumuah is (equivalent to) Hajj and waiting for ‘Asr Salah having offered Sala-tul-Jumuah is (equivalent to) ‘Umrah.”
(Sunan Kubra, pp. 342, vol. 3,  Hadiš 5950)

The Šawab of Hajj and ‘Umrah’

Hujja-tul-Islam Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Muhammad Ghazali عَلَیہِ رَحمۃُ اللہِ الوَالی says, “(Having offered Sala-tul-Jumuah) one should remain in the Masjid till Sala-tul-‘Asr and staying in the Masjid till Sala-tul-Maghrib is even more preferable. It is said that the one who offers Sala-tul-Jumuah in the Main Masjid, stays there afterwards and offers Sala-tul-‘Asr in the same Main Masjid, there is the Šawab of Hajj for him, and the one who stays till Sala-tul-Maghrib and offers Maghrib Salah in the same Masjid, there is the Šawab of Hajj and ‘Umrah for him.” (Ihya-ul-‘Ulum, pp. 249, vol. 1) A Masjid where Sala-tul-Jumuah is offered is called a Jama’ (Main) Masjid.

The Superior Day

The Prophet of mankind, the peace of our heart and mind, the most generous and kind ﷺ said, “Friday is superior to all other days; it is most magnificent (of all days) in the court of Allah عَزوجَل. It is superior to even Eid-ul-Adha and Eid-ul-Fitr. It has five particular features:

  1. Allah عَزوجَل created Sayyiduna Adam عَلیہِ السلاَم on this day.
  2. Sayyiduna Adam عَلیہِ السلاَم descended upon the earth on this day.
  3. Sayyiduna Adam عَلیہِ السلاَم passed away on the same day.
  4. On Friday, there is one such moment in which if someone prays for anything, he will be granted whatever he asked for, provided he does not ask for anything Haram.
  5. The Judgment Day will take place on Friday.

There is no such distinguished angel, the sky, the earth, wind, mountain and river that does not fear Friday.” (Sunan Ibn Majah, pp. 8, vol. 2, Hadis 1084)

According to another narration, the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “There is no animal that does not scream from dawn to sunrise every Friday out of the fear of the Day of Judgment, except man and Jin.”
(Muata Imam Malik, pp. 115, vol. 1, Hadis 246)

Supplications are Fulfilled

The Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “On Friday, there is one such a moment which if a Muslim gets and asks Allah عَزوجَل for anything in that moment, Allah عَزوجَل will definitely grant him. That moment is very short.” (Sahih Muslim, pp. 424,  Hadiš 852)

Saying of the Author of Bahar-e-Shariat

Hadrat Sadr-ush-Shariah Maulana Muhammad Amjad ‘Ali A’zami رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “There are two very strong statements concerning the instant in which supplication is fulfilled (on Friday):

  1. From the moment when the Imam sits for the sermon to the end of the Salah.
  2. The last instant of Friday.
    (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 754, vol. 1)

Which the Moment of Acceptance?

The renowned Mufassir Hakim-ul-Ummat Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Naimi رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “At night there comes a moment during which Du’a (supplication) is answered but Friday is the only day which has such a moment during the day time. However, it is not known for sure as to which moment it actually is. The strong likelihood is that it is either between two sermons or a short while before Maghrib.” Commenting on another Hadis, the reverent Mufti says that there are forty different opinions of scholars regarding this moment, out of which two are the most likely; as per one opinion, it is between two sermons while, according to the other, it is at the time of sunset.
(Mirat-ul Manajih, pp. 319, 320, vol. 2)

A Parable

Hazrat Sayyidatuna Fatimah Zahra رَضی اللہُ عَنھا used to sit in her Hujrah (small room) a short while prior to sunset and would ask Fiddah رَضی اللہُ عَنھا, her maid, to stand outside; as the sun begins to set, Fiddah رَضی اللہُ عَنھا would inform her about it and Hazrat Sayyidah رَضی اللہُ عَنھا would raise her blessed hands for supplication. (Mirat-ul Manajih, pp. 320, vol. 2) It is better to ask a concise supplication at that moment; for instance the following Quranic supplication:

Jumuah
Jumuah

One can recite Durud Sharif as well with the intention of supplication as Durud Sharif is itself a magnificent supplication. It is preferable to supplicate between both sermons by heart without raising hands and without uttering anything verbally.

14 Million & 400 Thousands Released from Hell Every Friday

The Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “There are 24 hours in day and night of Friday, there is not a single such hour in which Allah عَزوَجل does not release six hundred thousand (such sinners) from Hell for whom Hell had become due.” (‘Ali Mausili, Musnad Abi Ya’la, pp. 291, 235, vol. 3, Hadis 3421-3471)

Security from Grave Torment

The Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one who dies during the day or night of Friday, he will be saved from the torment of the grave and will be resurrected on the day of judgment with the seal of martyrs.” (Hilyat-ul-Awliya, pp. 181, vol. 3, Hadis 3629)

Sins between two Fridays Forgiven

Hadrat Sayyiduna Salman Farsi رَضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہُ  narrates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one who takes bath on Friday, attains the purity (sanctification) that was possible for him, applies oil and perfume available at home, heads (towards the Masjid) to offer Salah, does not cause separation between two people, i.e. does not sit between two people by intrusion, offers the Salah ordained for him and stays silent during the Imam’s sermon, his sins committed between this Friday and the previous one will be forgiven.”  (Sahih Bukhari, pp. 306, vol. 1, Hadis 883)

Sawab of 200 Years’ Worship

Hazrat Sayyiduna Siddiq-e-Akbar and Hazrat Sayyiduna ‘Imran bin Hasin رَضی اللہ عَنھُمَا narrate that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one taking bath on Friday, his sins and misdeeds are removed; when he proceeds (to offer Salah) 20 good deeds are written for his every step.” (Mu’jam Kabir, pp. 139, vol. 18, Hadis 292) According to another narration, the Sawab of 20 years’ good deeds is written for his every step.

When he finishes the Salah, he is given the Sawab of 200 years’ worship. (Al-Mu’jam-ul-Awsat-lit-Tabrani, pp. 314, vol. 2, Hadiš 3397)

Deeds Presented to Deceased Parents Every Friday

The Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “(Your) Deeds are presented before Allah عَزوجَل every Monday and Thursday whereas they are presented to the Prophets عَلیہمُ السَلام‑ and parents every Friday. Pleased by (your) good deeds, the beauty and brilliance of their faces enhance. Therefore, fear Allah عَزوجَل and do not grieve your deceased ones by committing sins.” (Nawadir-ul-Usul, pp. 260, vol. 2)

Five Special Good Deeds for Friday

Hazrat Sayyiduna Abu Sa‘id  رَضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہُ narrates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one who performs five deeds in a day, Allah will write (his name) amongst the dwellers of Heaven: (The deeds are as follows):

  1. Visiting a sick person.
  2. Attending a funeral Salah.
  3. Offering the Jumu’ah Salah.
  4. Freeing a slave. (Sahih ibn Hibban, vol. 4, pp. 191, Hadiš 2760)

Heaven Becomes Due

Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Umamah رَضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہُ narrates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one who offers Jumuah Salah, fasts (on the same day), visits a sick person, participates in a funeral and attends a Nikah (marriage) ceremony, Heaven will become due for him.” (Mu’jam Kabir, pp. 97, vol. 8, Hadis 7484)

Avoid Fasting on Friday Alone

It is Makruh-e-Tanzihi to fast specifically on Friday or Saturday alone. However, if Friday or Saturday falls on any sacred date such as 15th Sha’ban or 27th Rajab etc. there is no harm in fasting on these days. The Holy Prophet ﷺ said, ‘Friday is Eid for you. Do not fast on this day unless you add another fast on its preceding or succeeding day.” (Attarghib Wattarhib, pp. 81, vol. 2, Hadis 11)

Sawab of 10,000 Years’ Fasts

Ala Hadrat Imam Ahmad Raza khanعَلَیہِ رَحمۃُ الرَحمٰن  says, “It is narrated that the fast of Friday together with that of Thursday or Saturday is equivalent to 10,000 years’ fasts.” (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 653, vol. 10)

Sawab of Visiting Parents’ Graves on Friday

The Prophet of Rahmah, the Intercessor of Ummah ﷺ said, “The one who visits the graves of either of or both of his parents on every Friday, Allah عَزوجَل will forgive his sins and his name will be written as one of those behaving their parents well.” (Al-Mu’jam-ul-Awsat-lit-Tabrani, pp. 321, vol. 4, Hadis 6114)

Sawab of Reciting Sura-e-Yasin (سورہ یٰسین) Beside the Graves of Parent

The Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one who visits the graves of either of or both of his deceased parents of Friday and recites Surah Yasin over there, will be forgiven.” (Al-Kamil fi Du’fa-ir-Rijal, vol. 6, pp. 260)

Forgiveness 3000 Times

The beloved and blessed Prophet ﷺ said, “The one who visits the graves of either of or both of his parents on every Friday and recites Surah Yasin over there, Allah عَزوجَل will bless him with forgiveness equivalent to the total number of Surah Yasin’s letters.” (Ithaf-us-Sadat-il-Muttaqin, pp. 272, vol. 14)

Dear Islamic brothers! The one who visits the grave of either of or both of his deceased parents on Friday and recites Surah Yasin over there, he will be successful. اَلحمدُلِلہ عَزوَجَل there are 5 Ruku (sections), 83 verses, 729 words, and 3000 letters in Surah Yasin, if these figures are correct before Allah عَزوجَل, the recite will get the Sawab of 3000 forgiveness.

Souls Congregate

The one who recites Surah Yasin during the day of Friday or at Friday-night (the night between Thursday and Friday) will be forgiven. (Attarghib Wattarhib, pp. 298, vol. 1, Hadis 4) Since souls congregate on Friday, one should visit graves on this day; further, Hell is not blazed up on this day.(Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 49, vol. 3)

A’la-Hadrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan عَلیہ رَحمۃُ الرَحمٰن says, “The best time of visiting graves is the post-morning-Salah time on Friday.” (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 523, vol. 9)

Excellence of Reciting Sura-tul-Kahf(سورہ الکھف)

Hadrat Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar رَضی اللہُ عَنھُما narrates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one reciting Surah Kahf on Friday, Nur (Refulgence) will elevate from his feet up to the sky that will be brightened for him on the Day of Judgment and his sins committed between two Fridays will be forgiven.” (Attarghib Wattarhib, pp. 298, vol. 1, Hadis 2)

Nur between Two Fridays

Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Sa’id رَضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہُ narrates that Exalted Prophet ﷺ said, “The one who recites Surah Kahf on Friday, Nur will be brightened for him between two Fridays.” (Sunan Kubra, pp. 353, vol. 3, Hadis 5996)

Nur up to the Ka’bah

Another narration says: “The one reciting Surah Kahf on Friday-night (the night between Thursday and Friday), Nur will be brightened for him from where he is present up to the blessed Ka’bah.” (Sunan Darimi, pp. 546, vol. 2, Hadis 3407)

Excellence of Sura-e-Hamim Addukhan (سورہ حم الدخان)

Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Umamah رَضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہُ narrates that Holy Prophet ﷺ said: “The one reciting Surah-e-Hamim Addukhan on Friday or Friday-night, Allah عَزوَجَل will make a house for him in Heaven.” (Mu’jam Kabir, pp. 264, vol. 8, Hadis 8026)

One more narration says that he will be forgiven. (Jami’ Tirmizi, pp. 407, vol. 4, Hadis 2898)

Forgiveness Asked by 70,000 Angels

The Holy Prophet ﷺ said: “The on reciting Surah Hamim Addukhan on night 70,000 Angels will do Istighfar (ask for forgiveness) for him.” (Jami’ Tirmizi, pp. 406, vol. 4, Hadis 2897)

All Sins Forgiven

Hadrat Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik رَضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہُ narrates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “The one reciting اَستَغفِرُاللہَ الَذِی لَااِلٰہَ اِلَاھُوَوَاَتُوبُ اِلَیہ three times before Fajr Salah on Friday, his sins will be forgiven, even if they exceed the foam of the ocean.” (Al-Mu’jam-ul-Awsat-lit-Tabrani, pp. 392, vol. 5, Hadis 7717)

After the Jumuah Salah

Allah عَزوَجَل says in the 10th verse of Sura-tul-Jumuah (Part 28):

Jumuah
Jumuah

Commenting on the foregoing Ayah, Hadrat ‘Allamah Maulana Sayyid Muhammad Na’im-ud-Din Muradabadi رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ writes in Khaza-ain-ul-‘Irfan, ‘Having offered Friday Salah, it is permissible for you to occupy yourselves in earning livelihood, or gain Sawab by acquiring (religious) knowledge, visiting the sick, attending funerals, visiting scholars or performing other such pious deeds.’

 

Attending a Gathering of Islamic Knowledge

Attending a gathering of religious knowledge after Friday Salah is preferable. Therefore, Hujja-tul-Islam Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Muhammad Ghazali رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ narrates that Hazrat Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “This verse does not refer to worldly trade and business (only), rather, it refers to seeking knowledge, visiting brothers, visiting the sick, attending funerals and carrying out other such activities.” (Kimiya-e-Sa’adat, pp. 191, vol. 1)

 

Dear Islamic brothers! There are eleven conditions for rendering Jumuah Salah Wajib; if even either of them is not found, it will no longer remain Fard. However, if someone still offers it, his Salah will be valid; and it is preferable for (such) a sane, adult male (for whom Jumuah is not Fard on account of the absence of any condition) to offer Jumuah Salah. If a minor offers Jumuah Salah, it will be regarded as Nafl because Salah is not Fard for him. (Dur-re-Mukhtar-o-Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 30, vol. 3)

11 Pre-Conditions for the Obligation of Jumuah Salah

  1. Being settled in city
  2. Health (Sala-tul-Jumuah is not Fard for a patient. Here, patient refers to the person who cannot get to the Masjid where Sala-tul-Jumuah is held or even though he can get to the Masjid, it will result in the prolongation of his disease or delay in cure. The ruling of patient applies to Shaykh-e-Fani as well).
  3. Being a free person (Sala-tul-Jumuah is not Fard for a slave; his master can prevent him.)
  4. Being a man
  5. Being an adult
  6. Being Sane (The foregoing two conditions, i.e. adulthood and sanity are necessary not only for the obligation of Sala-tul-Jumuah but also for every other worship.)
  7. Having the faculty of sight
  8. Having the capability to walk
  9. Not being imprisoned
  10. Not having the fear of the king, thief etc. or that of any oppressor.
  11. Not having the true fear of harm due to rainfall, snowfall, tornado or cold weather. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 770, 772, vol. 1)

Those for whom Salah is Fard but Sala-tul-Jumuah is not Fard on account of any Shar’i exemption, are not exempted from Zuhr Salah on Friday; such people have to offer Zuhr Salah in lieu of Sala-tul-Jumuah.

The Sunan and Mustahab-bat of Friday

The Mustahab-bat of Jumuah include proceeding to offer Sala-tul-Jumuah in initial time, using Miswak, wearing nice white clothes, applying oil and fragrance sitting in the first Saf(row) while having a bath is Sunnah. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 149, vol. 1, Ghunyah, pp. 559)

The Time of Ghusl on Friday?

Hakim-ul-Ummat Hazrat Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “Some scholars رَحمَھُمُ اللہ تَعَالیٰ say that having a bath on Friday is a Sunnah for Friday Salah, not for Friday itself, (therefore) having a bath on Friday is not a Sunnah for those for whom Sala-tul-Jumuah is not Fard. According to some scholars رَحمَھُمُ اللہ تَعَالیٰ, one should have bath on Friday close to the time of Sala-tul-Jumuah so that he offers the Salah with the same Wudu (made during the bath). However, the most authentic verdict is that the time for Friday’s bath starts from the break of dawn.” (Mirah, pp. 334, vol. 2)

The foregoing account also clarifies that Friday’s bath is not a Sunnah for women, travelers etc. for whom Friday Salah is not Wajib.

Friday’s Bath is Sunnat-e-Ghair Muakkadah

‘Allamah ibn ‘Abidin Shami رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “Having a bath for Jumuah Salah is one of the Sunan-e-Zawaid; (and therefore) the abandoner of Friday’s bath will not be objected to.” (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 339, vol. 1)

The Excellence of Sitting Closer During the Sermon

Hazrat Sayyiduna Samurah bin Jundab رَضِیَ اللہُ تعالیٰ عَنہُ narrates that the Holy Prophet ﷺ said, “Be present at the time of the sermon and sit close to the Imam because the farther a person remains from the Imam, the later he will enter Heaven, though he (a Muslim) will definitely enter the Heaven.” (Sunan Abu Dawud, pp. 410, vol. 1, Hadis 1108)

No Šawab of Jumuah

The one who talks while the Imam is delivering the sermon is like a donkey carrying a burden. Similarly, the one asking his companion to get silent during the sermon will not gain the Šawab of Jumuah (Salah). (Musnad Imam Ahmad, pp. 494, vol. 1, Hadis 2033)

Listening to the Sermon Silently is Fard

The acts that are Haram during Salah such as eating, drinking, greeting, saying Salam, replying to Salam and even inspiring someone to righteousness are Haram during the sermon as well. However, the Khatib (the deliverer of sermon) can inspire someone to righteousness. It is Fard for all the attendees to listen and remain silent while the sermon is being delivered. Staying silent is Wajib even for those present so far from the Imam that they cannot listen to the sermon. If someone is seen committing any misdeed, he may be prevented either by the gesture of hand or nod of head; preventing him by uttering any word or sound is not permissible. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 774, vol. 1, Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 39, vol. 3)

Listener of Sermon is not allowed to Recite Even Durud Sharif

If the Khatib mentioned the blessed name of the Exalted ﷺ Prophet during the sermon, the listeners should recite Durud in their hearts; reciting Durud verbally at that time is not allowed. Likewise, uttering عَلَیھِمُ الرِضوَان is not allowed on listening to the blessed names of companions of the Exalted Prophet during the sermon. (Bahare-Shari’at, pp. 775, vol. 1, Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 40, vol. 3)

Listening to the Nikah Sermon is Wajib

In addition to the sermon delivered for Sala-tul-Jumuah, it is also Wajib to listen to other sermons such as the ones delivered for Eid Salah, Nikah (Islamic Marriage) etc. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 40, vol. 3)

Business Becomes Impermissible as Soon as the First Azan is Uttered

As soon as the first Azan is uttered, it is Wajib to start making effort to get to the Masjid for offering Sala-tul-Jumuah; it is also Wajib to put off trading and other activities contrary to the preparations for Sala-tul-Jumuah. Similarly, sale and purchase while proceeding to Masjid is also impermissible and trading in the Masjid is a severe sin. If the one having meal hears the voice of Azan for Sala-tul-Jumuah and fears that he may miss Sala-tul-Jumuah in case of having meal, he has to stop eating and proceed to the Masjid for offering Sala-tul-Jumuah. One should get to the Masjid in a dignified manner for Sala-tul-Jumuah. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 775, vol. 1, Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 42, vol. 3, ‘Alamgiri, pp. 149, vol. 1)

These days, people have drifted away from religious knowledge; like other worships, people commit sins as a result of making mistakes in listening to sermon. Therefore, it is my humble request that the Khatib (deliverer of sermon) make following announcement every Friday prior to the Azan of Khutbah before sitting on the pulpit and earn hoards of Šawab:

Seven Madani Pearls of Sermon

  1. A Hadis says, “The one who passes over people’s necks on Friday, makes a bridge towards Hell.” (Jami’ Tirmizi, pp. 48, vol. 2, Hadis 513)
    One of the explanations of this Hadis is that people will enter the Hell trampling up on him. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 761, 762, vol. 1)
  2. To sit facing the Khatib is a Sunnah of the blessed Companions عَلَیھِمُ الرِضوَان.
  3. Some of our past saints رَحمَھُمُ اللہ تَعَالیٰ said, “One should listen to the sermon in the sitting-posture (as one sits in Qa’dah), folding hands (under navel) during the first sermon and placing them on thighs during the second; he will earn the Šawab of offering two rakat Salah. (Mirat-ul Manajih, pp. 338, vol. 2)
  4. A’la-Hazrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan عَلیہ رَحمۃُ الرَحمٰن says, “When one hears the blessed name of the Holy Prophet ﷺ during the sermon, he should recite Durud in his heart as it is Fard to remain silent during sermon.” (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jad id), pp. 365, vol. 8)
  5. It is stated in ‘Durr-e-Mukhtar, “During the sermon, eating, drinking, talking (even sayingسُبحٰنَ اللہ ) replying to someone’s greeting, and inspiring others towards righteousness, all are Haram.” (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 39, vol. 3)
  6. A’la Hazrat رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “Walking during the sermon is Haram. The reverent scholars رَحمَھُمُ اللہ تَعَالیٰ even say that if someone enters the Masjid during the sermon, he must stop wherever he is without proceeding further as walking would be an act and no act is permissible during the sermon.” (Fatawa Ra6awiyyah (Jad id), pp. 333,vol. 8)
  7. A’la Hazrat رَحمَۃُ اللہ تعالیٰ عَلیہ says, “During the sermon, even looking somewhere turning the head is Haram.” (ibid, pp. 334)

An Important Ruling of Leading Sala-tul-Jumuah

With regard to the leading of Sala-tul-Jumuah there is an important matter of which people are quite inattentive. Sala-tul-Jumuah is considered like other Salah and everyone is allowed to lead Sala-tul-Jumuah; it is impermissible as leading Sala-tul-Jumuah is one of the responsibilities of the Islamic ruler or his deputy. In the states where Islamic Sovereignty does not exist, the greatest Sunni Scholar having correct beliefs can lead Sala-tul-Jumuah as he is the substitute of the Islamic ruler in issuing Shar’i rulings; Sala-tul-Jumuah cannot be held without his permission. If there is no such scholar, the one appointed by common people can lead the Salah. In spite of the presence of a scholar, people cannot themselves appoint anyone else, nor can just a few people appoint someone as the Imam on their own behalf. Holding Sala-tul-Jumuah in this way is not proven (in Islamic history). (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 764, vol. 1)

Approximately Ninety-Six (96) Sunan of Salah

Sunan of Takbir-e-Tahrimah

  1. Raising hands for Takbir-e-Tahrimah
  2. Keeping fingers in their normal condition i.e. neither keep them too close not produce tension in them.
  3. The inside part of palms as well as that of fingers should face the Qiblah.
  4. Not bowing head at the time of Takbir
  5. Raising both hands up to ears before starting the utterance of Takbir
  6. The same Sunan apply to the Takbir of Qunut and
  7. The Takbirat of the both Eid Salah as well.
  8. Imam’s uttering اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ,
  9. سَمع اللہُ لِمَن حَمِدَہ’ and
  10. Salam loudly (raising voice louder than requirement is Makruh).
  11. Folding hands immediately after the Takbir is Sunnah (after uttering Takbir-e-Aula, some people drop their hands to their sides or sway their arms backwards and then fold their hands; this is a deviation from Sunnah). (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 520-522, vol. 1)

Sunan of Qiyam

  1. Men should fold their hands beneath their navel with their right palm on the back of their left wrist joint, right thumb and small finger should be around left wrist and their remaining right hand fingers should be on the back of left forearm.
  2. Reciting Sana first and then
  3. Ta’aw-wuz () and then
  4. Tasmiyah (بِسمِ اللہِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحِیمِ).
  5. Reciting Sana, Ta’aw-wuz and Tasmiyah immediately one after the other.
  6. Uttering all of them with low volume.
  7. Uttering اٰمِین.
  8. Uttering it (اٰمِین) in low voice also.
  9. Reciting Sana immediately after Takbir-e-Aula. (In Salah, Ta’aw-wuz and Tasmiyah are linked with the Qira-at, as the Muqtadi does not have to do Qira-at, it is not Sunnah for him to recite Ta’aw-wuz and Tasmiyah either; however, the Muqtadi missing one or more Rak’at should recite them while offering his missed Rak’at). (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 234, vol. 2)
  10. Ta’aw-wuz should be recited in the first Rak’at only.
  11. Tasmiyah is Sunnah at the beginning of every Rak’at. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 522, 523, vol. 1)

Sunan of Ruku’

  1. Uttering اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ for Ruku’
  2. Uttering سُبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّعَظِیّمِ three times in Ruku’
  3. Man’s holding knees with hands;
  4. Spreading fingers wide apart and,
  5. Keeping legs straight in Ruku’ (some people bend their legs like a bow, this is Makruh). (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 525, vol. 1)
  6. In Ruku’, the back should be so straight (horizontally) that even if a glass of water is placed on the back, the glass should remain still. (Fath-ul-Qadir, pp. 259, vol. 1)
  7. In Ruku’, the head should neither be higher nor lower (than the back) it should be in the straightness of the back. (Hidayah, pp. 50, vol. 1)

 

The beloved Rasul of Allah said, “The Salah of the one not keeping his back straight in Ruku’ and Sujud is insufficient (imperfect).” (Sunan Abu Dawud, pp. 325, vol. 1, Hadis 855)

 

The Holy Prophet said, “Perform your Ruku’ and Sujud completely as, by Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ, I see you from back.” (Sahih Bukhari, pp. 263, vol. 1, Hadis 742)

  1. It is better (for a Musalli) to utter اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ while bending for Ruku’ i.e. to utter Takbir when he starts bending for Ruku’ and finish it having bent completely. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 74, vol. 1) In order to do so, stretch the لام (lam) of Allah, not the ب (ba) of Akbar or any other letter. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 525, vol. 1) Uttering اٰللہُ (Allahu), اٰکبر (Akbar) or اکبار will invalidate the Salah. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 218, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 218, vol. 2)

Sunan of Qawmah

  1. Keeping hands down to sides when standing after Ruku’. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 73, vol. 1)
  2. Imam’s uttering سَمعَ اللّٰہُ لِمَنّ حَمِدَہ when standing from Ruku’
  3. Muqtadi’s uttering اَللَّھُمَّ رَبَّنَاوَلَکَ الّحَمّد.
  4. Uttering both is a Sunnah for Munfarid. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 527, vol. 1) The Sunnah will be fulfilled if the words رَبَّنَالَکَ الّحَمّد are uttered but it is better to add the letter “و” after the word “رَبَّنَا”; uttering اَللَّھُمَّ رَبَّنَا is better than uttering رَبَّنَا and adding both i.e. uttering اَللَّھُمَّ رَبَّنَاوَلَکَ الّحَمّد is better than utter رَبَّنَالَکَ الّحَمّد. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 246, vol. 2)
  5. A Munfarid should start uttering سَمعَ اللّٰہُ لِمَنّ حَمِدَہ while standing from Ruku’ and, having stood erect, he should utter اَللَّھُمَّ رَبَّنَاوَلَکَ الّحَمّد. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 247, vol. 2)

Sunan of Sajdah

  1. Utter اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ when going down for Sajdah
  2. Uttering اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ when returning from Sajdah.
  3. Uttering سُبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّاَعّلٰی at least three times in Sajdah.
  4. Placing palms on the ground in Sajdah
  5. Keeping the fingers close together, facing the Qiblah
  6. When going down for Sajdah, placing knees,
  7. Hands,
  8. Nose and
  9. Forehead on ground in that order
  10. Doing that in reverse order when returning from Sajdah i.e.
  11. Forehead,
  12. Nose,
  13. Hands and
  14. Knees should be lifted from ground in that order.
  15. During Sajdah, it is a Sunnah for men to keep their arms apart from sides and
  16. Thighs apart from belly.
  17. Not laying forearms on the ground. If you are in a Saf (row) during Jama’at, then do not keep arms away from sides.
  18. Making the soles of all ten toes of both feet touch the ground in such a way that their tips face the Qiblah. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 528-530, vol. 1)

Sunan of Jalsah

  1. Sitting between both Sujud, which is called Jalsah
  2. Keeping the right foot upright and the left foot flat and sitting on the left foot
  3. Keeping the toes of right foot towards the Qiblah
  4. Placing both hands on thighs. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 530, vol. 1)

Sunan of Standing for the Second Rak’at

  1. After the completion of both Sujud, it is a Sunnah to stand up for the second Rak’at with the support of toes.
  2. Placing hands on knees; however, there is no harm in placing hands on the ground for standing up due to weakness or pain in foot.
    (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 262, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 262, vol. 2)

Sunan of Qa’dah

  1. After performing the Sujud of the 2nd Rak’at, it is a Sunnah for men to lay their left foot flat.
  2. Sitting with both buttocks on the left flattened foot
  3. Keeping right foot upright and
  4. Keeping the toes of right foot towards the Qiblah.
  5. Keeping right hand on right thigh and
  6. Left hand on left thigh
  7. Leaving fingers in a normal state i.e. neither too close together nor too wide apart
  8. Keeping fingertips close to the knees but one should not hold the knees
  9. Raising the index finger of right hand while giving Shahadah (Testimony) during اَلتَّحِیِّات. Its method is as follows:

 

Fold ring finger and the pinkie, form a ring with the middle finger and thumb, raise the index finger while uttering “لا”  and do not shake it hither and thither, put it down while uttering الّا and straighten all fingers. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 530, vol. 1)

  1. Sitting in the second Qa’dah just like the first one. Reciting Tashahhud as well. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 272, vol. 2)
  2. Reciting Durud Sharif after Tashahhud. Reciting Durud-e-Ibrahim is preferable. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 531, vol. 1)
  3. It is a Sunnah to recite Durud Sharif after Tashahhud in the first Qa’dah of Nafl and Sunan-e-Ghair Muakkadah. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 281, vol. 2)
  4. Reciting Du’a after Durud Sharif. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 534, vol. 1)

Sunan of Performing Salah

  1. Performing Salam twice uttering the following words: اَلسَّلَامُ عَلَیکُم وَرَحمَۃُاللہ
  1. Turning the face to the right side first and then
  2. The left side. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 535, vol. 1)
  3. Saying both Salam loudly is a Sunnah for the Imam, but the voice of the second Salah should be lower than the first one. (Dur-re-Muhtar, pp. 292, vol. 2)
  4. As soon as the Imam utters the word السَّلام while performing the first Salam, his Salah will finish even if he has not yet uttered the word عَلَیکُم; therefore, if any latecomer joined the Jama’at after the Imam had already uttered the word السَّلام, his Iqtida would not be valid. However, his Iqtida will be valid if the Imam, having performed the first Salah, performs Sajda-e-Sahw provided Sajda-e-Sahw had become Wajib. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 292, vol. 2)
  5. When the Imam turns his face to the right and left side while performing Salah, he should make the intention of saying Salam to the people offering Salah at his right and left side respectively; but he should not intend to say Salam to any woman (even if she is present in the Jama’at). Further, he should also intend to say Salam to Kiraman Katibin (angels deputed for writing deeds) as well as the angels deputed for safeguard during both Salam, but he should not fix any number in the intention. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 294, vol. 2)
  6. Muqtadi (the one offering Salah with Jama’at) should also intend to say Salam to the people and angels on both sides, further, he should also make intention for the Imam while performing Salam towards the side where the Imam is present. If the Imam is in front of the Muqtadi, he should intend to say Salam to the Imam while performing both Salams. A Munfarid should intend to say Salam to the angels only. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 299, vol. 2)
  7. Muqtadi’s transitions i.e. Ruku’, Sujud etc. should be with those of Imam’s. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 535, vol. 1)

Sunan after Performing the Salam

  1. It is a Sunnah for the Imam either to turn right or left after performing the Salah; turning to right side is preferable. To sit facing the Muqtadis is also permissible provided that not a single person is offering Salah in front of Imam’s face up to the last Saf. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 537, vol. 1)
  2. It is permissible for a Munfarid to ask supplication without turning any side. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 77, vol. 1)

Sunan of the Sunan-e-Ba’diyyah

(The Sunan after the Faraid)

  1. Talking should be avoided after the Fard Salah that is followed by Sunnah Salah. Even though the Sunan will be valid in spite of talking but their Sawab will be reduced. To delay the Sunan is Makruh; similarly, lengthy Awrad (invocations) are not permitted (between the Fard and the Sunan Salah). (Ghunyah, pp. 343) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 300, vol. 2)
  2. After the Fard that are followed by Sunnah, Du’a should be brief; otherwise, the Sawab of the Sunan will be reduced. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 539, vol. 1)
  3. Even though it is correct that talking between Fard and Sunnah does not invalidate Sunnah, but their Sawab is reduced; the same ruling applies to every such act that contradicts Tahrimah. (Tanvir-ul-Absar, pp. 558, vol. 2)
  4. Do not offer Sunnah Salah at the same place where Fard Salah was offered, instead, it should be offered at a different place such as right or left or front or rear side or at home. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 77, vol. 1) (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 302, vol. 2)

 

(There is no harm in the pause taking place as a result of going home for offering Sunnah Salah. However, it is a sin to pass across the front of a Musalli or face his front for changing the place or going home; if there is no space to go, offer Sunnah Salah at the same place).

An Important Ruling of the Sunan

The Islamic brothers who engage in talking and walking having offered Sunan-e-Qabliyah or Ba’diyyah should learn a lesson from the following blessed Fatwa of A’la Hadrat رَحمَۃُ اللہِ تَعالٰی عَلَیہ. Therefore, replying to a question, A’la Hadrat رَحمَۃُ اللہِ تَعالٰی عَلَیہ said, “The best time for the Sunan-e-Qabliyah is the initial time (of the Salah) provided talking or any other act that contradicts Salah is avoided between the Fard and Sunnah. As for Sunan-e-Ba’diyyah, it is Mustahab to offer them immediately after the Faraid; there is no harm in the pause taking place as a result of going home to offer them at home. However, the pause due to contradictory acts should be avoided; such a pause will result in the loss of the Sawab of the Sunan-e-Qabliyah as well as Ba’diyyah and will render them out of the prescribed Sunnah method.” (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 139, vol. 5)

Sunan for Islamic Sisters

  1. It is a Sunnah for the Islamic sisters to raise their hands to their shoulders whilst uttering Takbir-e-Tahrimah and Takbir-e-Qunut. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 222, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 222, vol. 2)
  2. In Qiyam, Islamic sisters and eunuchs should place their left palm just below breasts on their chest and put the right palm on the back of the left palm. (Ghunyah, pp. 300)
  3. For Islamic sisters, in Ruku’, placing hands on knees and keeping fingers not wide apart is a Sunnah. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 525, vol. 1)
  4. Islamic sisters should slightly bow in Ruku’ (just enough for their hands to reach their knees). Their backs should not be completely straight and they should not apply weight on their knees (simply place their hands on knees); their fingers should be close together and legs should be slightly bent i.e. not completely straight like men. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 74, vol. 1)
  5. Islamic sisters should perform Sajdah keeping their body parts close together, i.e. arms touching body sides,
  6. Belly touching thighs,
  7. Thighs touching shins and
  8. Shins touching the ground. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 529, vol.1)
  9. After performing the Sujud of the second Rak’at, they should draw out their both feet towards the right side in Qa’dah.
  10. They should sit on their left buttock. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 530, vol. 1)

Sic Rulings for those who cannot retain their Wudu

Sic Rulings for those who cannot retain their Wudu

  1. Wudu is nullified by the passing of urine (even a drop), breaking wind, seepage from injury, flowing of tears from an ailing eye, flowing of water from the navel, ears, or breasts, the passing of fluid from a pimple and diarrhea. If someone is suffering continuously from any of these ailments and he could not be able to offer Salah with Wudu during complete span from starting to ending of a Salah timing, he is a Shari Mazur (lawfully exempted). He may offer as many Salah as he likes with one Wudu during that span; his Wudu will not become invalid by that ailment. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 385, vol. 1, Dar-re-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 553, vol. 1)
  2. The Wudu of a Mazur becomes invalid as soon as the time of Fard Salah ends. This ruling is applied when cause of exemption is found during Wudu or after Wudu. If this is not so and there is no other cause nullifying Wudu, then Wudu will not become invalid even after elapsing of time. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 386, vol. 1, Dur-re-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 555, vol. 1) After elapsing of time of a Fard Salah, Wudu of Mazur becomes invalid. For example, if someone does Wudu for Asr it will become invalid as soon as the sun sets and Wudu done after sunrise would become invalid as soon as the time of Zuhar Salah ends as till then, time of any Fard Salah had not elapsed.
  3. Once ‘Uzr has been established, that will remain valid as long as the cause is found at least once in the total span of the Salah. For instance, if someone experiences a constant discharge of urine droplets in full span and he does not get opportunity to make Wudu and offer Fard Salah, he is a Mazur. Now in second span, he gets the opportunity to make Wudu and offer prayer but still droplet leaks once or more in this second span, he is still Mazur. However, if a Salah span pasts such that not a single droplet leaks, he would not remain Mazur. Whenever that previous condition repeats i.e. ailment persisted within the whole span, he will again become Shari Mazur. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 385, vol. 1)
  4. Although the Wudu of a Mazur person is not nullified by the reason which has made him Mazur, yet if any other Wudu-nullifying cause exists, Wudu would become invalid. For instance, someone with the ‘Uzr of breaking wind will lose his Wudu due to passing of urine droplet. If ‘Uzr is due to urine droplets, Wudu will be lost on breaking of wind. (ibid, pp. 586)
  5. If a Mazur performs Wudu due to Hadas (any act that nullifies Wudu) and during Wudu the reason of his ‘Uzr is not existing but after Wudu that reason was found, Wudu will be lost (this ruling will apply when Mazur performs Wudu due to reason other than causing him Mazur. If he is performing Wudu due to his ‘Uzr, the Wudu will not be lost if that ‘Uzr occurs after Wudu). For instance, someone was Mazur due to loss of control on urine. He faced breaking of wind and thus performed Wudu. During Wudu urine stopped but after Wudu, some urine drops trickled away, Wudu will be lost. However if this trickling takes place during Wudu, the Wudu will remain valid. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 387, vol. 1, Dur-re-Mukhtar, Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 557, vol. 1)
  6. If the ‘Uzr is such that it causes impurity of his clothes, then in case the stain caused impurity of cloth area larger than the area of a dirham (an old currency used symbolically for sizing) and he has opportunity to offer Salah after purifying the clothes, then it is Fard for him to first purify the clothes and then say Salah. And if he knows that while offering Salah, the clothes will become impure to same extent, then purification is not binding and he may offer prayers with same clothes. Even if his prayer mat becomes impure, his Salah will be valid. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 387, vol. 1) (For detailed rulings regarding the Wudu of a Mazur refer to Bahar-e-Shariat, Part 2)

Seven Miscellaneous Rulings

  1. The passing of urine, stool, Wadi, Mazi, semen, worm or pebble from front or rear excretory organs of a man or woman will nullify Wudu. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 9, vol. 1)
  2. The passing of even a minor amount of air from the rear will nullify Wudu. The passing of air from the front of a man or woman will not nullify Wudu. (ibid) (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 304, vol. 1)
  3. Unconsciousness nullifies Wudu. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 12, vol. 1)
  4. Some people say that pronouncing the name of pig nullifies Wudu. This is false.
  5. If one’s Wudu breaks due to some reason (e.g. breaking of wind) whilst he is performing it, he has to re-start Wudu, the organs washed earlier will be considered unwashed. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 255, vol. 1)
  6. To touch the Holy Quran, or any Quranic verse or its translation In any language without Wudu is Haram. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 326, 327 etc, vol. 1)
  7. There is no harm in reciting the Quran seeing its script without touching it or by heart without Wudu.

Ya Rab عزوجل of Mustafa  bestow us with the ability to perform Shari Wudu without wastage and to remain in a state of Wudu at all times. Amen

Wajibat of Salah

Thirty Wajibat of Salah

  1. Uttering ‘اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ ’ for Takbir-e-Tahrimah.
  2. Reciting Sur-e-Fatihah, a Surah, or one such Quranic Ayah that is equivalent to three small ones or three small Ayahs in every Rak’at of every Salah except the last two Rak’at of Fard Salah.
  3. Reciting Sura-e-Fatihah before the Surah.
  4. Not reciting anything except ‘اۤمِیّن’ and ‘بِسمِ اللہِ الرَّحمٰنِ الرَّحِیمِ’  between Alhamd and the Surah.
  5. Doing Ruku’ immediately after Qira-at.
  6. Doing the second Sajdah after the first one (in sequence).
  7. Maintaining Ta’dil-e-Arkan, i.e. staying in Ruku’, Sujud, Qawmah and Jalsah for the amount of time in which ‘سُبحٰنَ اللہ’ can be uttered at least once.
  8. Qawmah, i.e. standing erect after Ruku’ (some people do not straighten their back after Ruku’, it is the missing of a Wajib).
  9. Jalsah, i.e. sitting upright between two Sujud (some people do the second Sajdah before they properly sit upright after the first one missing a Wajib. No matter how extreme hurry is, it is mandatory to sit straight or else the Salah will become Makruh-e-Tahrimi and repeating such a Salah will be Wajib).
  10. The first Qa’dah is Wajib even in a Nafl Salah (In fact, every Qa’dah in two Rak’at Nafl Salah is the ‘last Qa’dah’ and is, therefore, Fard; if someone did not do Qa’dah and stood up forgetfully and if he has not yet done Sajdah of the third Rak’at, he must return and do Sajda-e-Sahw. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 480, vol. 1)

If someone has done the Sajdah of the 3rd Rak’at of Nafl Salah, now he has to complete the fourth Rak’at and do Sajda-e-Sahw. Sajda-e-Sahw became Wajib because although Qa’dah is Fard after every two Rak’at of Nafl Salah, the first Qa’dah turned into Wajib from Fard because of performing the Sajdah of the third or fifth Rak’at and so on. (Hashiya-tut-Tahtavi Ala Maraqil Falah, pp. 466)

  1. Not reciting anything after Tashahhud in the first Qa’dah of Fard, Witr or Sunnah-e-Muakkadah Salah.
  2. Reciting complete Tashahhud in both Qa’dah. If even one word is missed, Wajib will be missed and Sajda-e-Sahw will be Wajib.
  3. If someone forgetfully recites اَللّٰھُمَّ صَلِّ عَلیٰ مُحَمَّد or اَللّٰھُمَّ صَلِّ عَلی سَیِّدِنَا after Tashahhud in the first Qa’dah of Fard, Witr, and Sunnat-e-Muakkadah, Sajda-e-Sahw will become Wajib; if someone says it deliberately, repeating the Salah will be Wajib. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 269, vol. 2)
  4. Saying the word ‘اَلسَّلَامُ’ when turning face to the right and left side is Wajib each time; saying the word ‘عَلَیکُم’ is not a Wajib, it’s a Sunnah.
  5. Uttering the Takbir of Qunut in Witr.
  6. Reciting Dua’a-e-Qunut in Witr.
  7. The six Takbirat of both Eid Salah.
  8. Takbir of Ruku’ in the second Rak’at of both Eid Salah and uttering the word ‘اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ ’ for it.
  9. Imam’s doing Qira-at in such a loud voice (that at least three persons could hear) in Jahri Salah such as the first two Rak’ats of Maghrib and ‘Isha and all the Rak’ats of Fajr, Jumu’ah, Eidain, Tarawih and the Witr of Ramadan.
  10. Doing Qira-at with low volume in the “Sirri Salah” such as Zuhar and ‘Asr.
  11. Performing every Fard and Wajib in its prescribed order.
  12. Doing Ruku’ only once in each Rak’at.
  13. Doing Sajdah only twice in each Rak’at.
  14. Not doing Qa’dah before the second Rak’at.
  15. Not doing Qa’dah in the third Rak’at of a four Rak’at Salah.
  16. Doing the Sajdah of Tilawat in case of reciting an Ayah of Sajdah.
  17. Doing Sajda-e-Sahw if it has become Wajib.
  18. Avoiding the pause for the amount of time in which Tasbih (i.e. سُبحٰنَ اللہ) can be uttered three times in between two Faraid, two Wajibat or a Fard and a Wajib.
  19. Muqtadi’s remaining silent when the Imam is doing Qira-at whether aloud or quietly.
  20. Following the Imam in all Wajibat except the Qira-at. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 517, 519, vol. 1) (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 184, 203, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 184, 203, vol. 2)

Faraid of Salah

Seven Faraid of Salah

There are seven Faraid in Salah.

  1. Takbir-e-Tahrimah
  2. Qiyam
  3. Qira-at
  4. Ruku
  5. Sujud
  6. Qa’dah-e-Akhirah
  7. Khuruj-e-Bisun’ihi.

(Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 158-170, vol. 2) (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 507, vol. 1)

1.Takbir-e-Tahrimah
In fact, Takbir-e-Tahrimah (also called Takbir-e-Aula) is one of the pre-conditions for Salah but it has also been included in the Faraid because it is closely attached to the acts of Salah. (Ghunyah, pp. 256)

  1. If the Muqtadi says the word ‘Allah’ of Takbir-e-Tahrimah with the Imam but utters the word ‘Akbar’ before the Imam utters the same word, his Salah will not be valid. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 68, vol. 1)
  2. If the Muqtadi finds the Imam in Ruku’ and bends instantly for Ruku’ uttering the Takbir, i.e. he finishes the Takbir after he had already bent down to such an extent that his hands would touch his knees if he stretched them, his Salah will not be valid. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 176, vol. 2) (What he should do on such an occasion is to utter the Takbir-e-Tahrimah whilst standing erect and then do Ruku’ utteringاَللہُ اَکّبَرّ . If he manages to join the Imam in Ruku’ even for a moment, the Rak’at will be counted, but if the Imam stands up before he joins the Imam in Ruku’, the Rak’at will not be counted.)
  3. If someone is unable to pronounce Takbir because of dumbness of loss of the faculty of speaking due to any other reason, he does not have to utter it; just making intention in heart is sufficient for him. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 220, vol. 2)
  4. If the word “Allah” is mispronounced as اٰللہ (Allah) or the word اَکّبَر (Akbar) as اٰکبر (Akbar) or اکبار (Akbar), the Salah will be invalid. If anyone deliberately utters any of these words despite understanding their Fasid (wrong) meaning, he will become a Kafir (disbeliever). (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 218, vol. 2)

These days, in case of a big Jama’at, most of the Mukabbirs, voluntarily conveying the voice of Takbir to those offering Salah at the back side, are heard mispronouncing the word ‘Akbar’ as ‘Akbar’ due to the lack of religious knowledge. As a result of this mispronunciation, the Salah of such Mukabbirs as well as that of those offering Salah following their Takbirs becomes invalid. Therefore, one should refrain from uttering Takbir without learning necessary rulings.

  1. If someone performs first Rak’at’s Ruku’ with the Imam, he will gain the Sawab of Takbir-e-Aula. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1)

2.Qiyam

  1. The least level of Qiyam is that if the hands are stretched, they should not reach knees whereas complete Qiyam is to stand erect.
    (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 163, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 163, vol. 2)
  2. The duration of Qiyam and that of Qira-at is the same; standing in Qiyam is Fard, Wajid or Sunnah for as long as Fard Qira-at, Wajib Qira-at or Sunnah Qira-at requires respectively. (ibid)
  3. Qiyam is Fard for Fard, Witr, Eidain and the Sunan of Fajr Salah. If anyone offered any of these Salah sitting without a valid reason, Salah would not be valid. (ibid)
  4. Feeling just slight pain in standing is not a valid excuse, instead, a person can be exempted from Qiyam when he/she is unable to stand or perform Sajdah or when his wound bleeds due to standing or performing Sajdah or a drop of urine is released, or his quarter Sitr is exposed, or he is quite unable to do Qira-at. Similarly, if a person is able enough to stand, but it will result in the intensity or prolongation of his illness or unbearable pain, he can offer Salah sitting. (Ghunyah, pp. 261-267)
  5. If it is possible to stand for Qiyam leaning on a staff (crutches) or wall, or by the help of a servant, it is Fard to do so. (Ghunyah, pp. 261)
  6. If it is possible to utter just Takbir-e-Tahrimah standing, it is Fard to utter اَللہُ اَکّبَرّ whilst standing and then (if it isn’t possible to remain standing anymore), he may sit down. (ibid, pp. 262)

Beware!

Beware! The people who offer their Fard Salah sitting due to any slight pain, injury etc. should consider the foregoing ruling of Shari’ah; it is Fard to repeat every such Salah offered sitting despite having the strength to stand. Similarly, it is also Fard to repeat all such Salah offered sitting despite the fact that they could have been offered standing by leaning on a staff, wall or with the help of a person. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 511, vol. 1) The same rule applies to women, i.e. they are not allowed to offer Salah sitting without Shar’i permission.

  1. Some Masajid provide chairs on which some old people sit and offer Salah despite coming to the Masjid on foot, they even talk with others standing after the Salah; if such people offer Salah sitting without Shara’i permission, their Salah will not be valid.
  2. It is permissible to offer Nafl Salah sitting despite having the strength to stand; however, it is better to offer it standing. Hadrat Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ narrates that the Prophet of Rahmah, the intercessor of Ummah, the distributor of Na’mah ﷺ said, “The Salah of the one offering in sitting-posture is half of the one offering in standing-posture (the Sawab would be half).” (Sahih Muslim, pp. 370, Hadis 735) However, the Sawab will not be reduced if someone offers it sitting due to any valid reason. Nowadays, the trend of offering Nafl Salah in sitting- posture has developed. People seem to be under the impression that offering these Nafl sitting is better; it is their misconception. The same ruling applies to the two Rak’at Nafl after the Witr (to offer them standing is better). (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 670, vol. 1)
  3. Qira-at ( Recitation of the Holy Quran )
  4. Qira-at means ‘pronouncing each and every letter from its correct place of origin so that each letter is quite distinct from every other letter.’ (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1)
  5. Even when reciting in low volume, it is necessary for the recite to hear his voice of recitation. (ibid)
  6. If the letters are pronounced correctly, but not loud enough for the recite to hear himself (and there is no obstruction such as noise or the problem of hard of hearing either), the Salah will not be valid in this case. (ibid)
  7. Although it is necessary for the recite to listen to the voice of recitation himself, the sound should not reach others in Sirri Salah (the Salah in which recitation is done in low volume). Similarly, listening to the voice of recitation while reciting Tasbihat etc. is also necessary.
  8. Likewise, whatever is to be recited or said even other than Salah, it must be recited or said in such a loud voice that the recite or speaker could hear himself; for example, giving a divorce, freeing a slave or mentioning the name of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ when slaughtering an animal. In all these cases, the words must be said loud enough for the recite to hear. (ibid) The same should be kept in mind when reciting Durud Sharif and other Awrads.
  9. To recite at least one Ayah in the first two Rak’at of a Fard Salah, every Rak’at of Witr, Sunan and Nawafil Salah is Fard for the Imam as well as the Munfarid. (Maraqil Falah. pp. 51)
  10. A Muqtadi is not allowed to do Qira-at in Salah, neither Sura-e-Fatihah nor any other Ayah; neither in a Sirri Salah nor in a Jahri Salah. The Qira-at of the Imam is sufficient for the Muqtadi. (Maraqil Falah, pp. 51)
  11. If someone did not do Qira-at in any Rak’at of Fard Salah or did Qira-at only in one Rak’at, his Salah would be invalid. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 69, vol. 1)
  12. One should recite the Quran slowly in Fard Salah and, at a medium pace, in Tarawih. Fast recitation in Nawafil of the night is permissible, however, the words should be clearly understandable, i.e. the Maddat should be pronounced with at least the minimum degree of length set by Qurra, otherwise, it is Haram, because we have been commanded to recite the Quran with Tartil (slowly). (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 320, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 320, vol. 2)

These days, most of the Huffaz recite in such a way that not to speak of maintaining the length of Mad; one cannot understand any word except یَعؔلَمُونَ ، تَعّلَمُونَ , they do not pronounce the letters properly, they even miss out words. Even worse, they boast amongst others about their speed of recitation. Reciting the Quran in such a manner is strictly Haram. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 547, vol. 1)

Correct Pronunciation of Alphabets is Essential
Most of the people are unable to distinguish between the sounds of ت  ط، س ص ث ، ا ء ع، ہ ح ، د ض ذ ظ ۔ Remember, if the meaning of a word becomes Fasid (wrong) as a result of changing the sound of letter, Salah will not be valid. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 125, part. 3)

For example, if someone says عَزِیّم instead of عَظِیم (with a ز instead of a ظ) in سُبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّعَظِیّم , his Salah will become invalid. Therefore, if someone cannot utter عَظِیّم properly, he should utter سٗبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّکَرِیّم instead. (Qanun-e-Shari’at, pp. 105, part. 1) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 242, vol. 2)

Warning
Just a little practice is not enough for the one unable to pronounce letters correctly; he must practice hard day and night. If such a person can offer Salah led by the Imam reciting correctly, it is Fard for him to do so, or he must recite only such Ayahs that he can recite correctly. If both the aforementioned cases are impossible, his own Salah will be valid during his learning period. Regretfully, these days a lot of people have this shortcoming. They do not know how to recite the Quran correctly and do not try to learn either. Remember, this ruins Salah. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 570, vol. 1)

If someone could not correct his pronunciation is spite of making every possible effort day and night (as some people are unable to pronounce the letters properly) he must keep practicing day and night, in this case, he will be considered excused during his learning-period. His own Salah will be valid but he cannot lead the Salah of those who can recite correctly, however, during his learning period, he can lead the Salah of those who cannot correctly pronounce such letters that he is also unable to pronounce correctly. But if he does not make any effort at all, so even his own Salah will not be valid, how can others’ Salah be valid under his Imamat. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jad id). Pp. 254, vol. 6)

Madrasa-tul-Madinah
Dear Islamic brothers! You may have realized the importance of Qira-at. Indeed, extremely unfortunate is the Muslim who does not learn correct recitation of the Holy Quran.  اَلحَمدُلِلّٰہ عَزَّوَجَلَّNumerous Madaris by the name of ‘Madrasa-tul-Madinah’ have been established by Dawat-e-Islami, the global, non-political, religious movement of the Quran and Sunnah. In these Madaris, girls and boys are taught Hifz and Nazirah Quran free of cost.
Moreover, the correct pronunciations of letters as well as Sunnahs are taught to the adults usually after Sala-tul-‘Isha in Masajid. Would that everyone starts teaching and learning the Holy Quran in their homes! Would that every such Islamic brother able enough to recite the Quran correctly starts teaching other Islamic brothers! Likewise, the Islamic sisters who can recite correctly should teach others and those who cannot recite properly should learn from them. اِن شَاۤءَاللہ عَزَّوَجَلَّ, Quranic teachings will prevail everywhere and those learning and teaching will earn great Sawab, اِن شَاۤءَاللہ عَزَّوَجَلَّ.

  1. Ruku
    The least level of Ruku’ is to bend forward to such an extent that if hands are stretched, they should reach the knees while complete Ruku’ is to keep the back horizontally straight. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 165, vol. 2) (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 513, vol. 1)

The beloved Rasul of Allah ﷺ said, “Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ does not see (mercifully) at such a Salah of the person in which he does not straighten his between Ruku’ and Sujud.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad, pp. 617, vol. 3, Hadis 10803)

5.Sujud

  1. The beloved Rasul of Allah ﷺ said, “I have been commanded to perform Sajdah on seve bones: (i) the face, (ii & iii) both hands, (iv & v) both knees and (vi & vii) finger-ser of both feet; I have (also) been commanded not to fold my clothes and hair. (Sahih Muslim, pp. 253, Hadis 490)
  2. Two Sujud are Fard in each Rak’at. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 513, vol. 1)
  3. It is necessary that the forehead properly rests on the ground. Resting of forehead means hardness of the ground should be felt. If someone performed Sajdah in such a way that his forehead did not properly rest on the ground, Sajdah would not be valid. (ibid, pp. 513, 514)
  4. In case of performing Sajdah on something soft such as grass, wool or a carpet, if the forehead firmly rests onto it, i.e. it is pressed so hard that it cannot be pressed any more, Sajdah will be valid, otherwise, not. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 70, vol. 1)
  5. These days, the trend of using carpets in Masajid has developed (in some Masajid foam is also spread underneath the carpets). While performing Sajdah on a carpet, make it sure that the forehead firmly rests, otherwise Salah will not be valid. If the nasal bone did not rest on the ground properly, the Salah will be Makruh-e-Tahrimi and it would be Wajid to repeat such a Salah. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 514, vol. 1, etc.)
  6. As the forehead does not properly rest on a spring mattress, Salah will not be valid on it. (ibid)

Disadvantages of Carpets
It is difficult to perform Sajdah properly on the carpet; carpets cannot easily be cleaned either. Therefore, dust and germs accumulate inside them. In Sajdah, dust and germs enter the body by means of breathing. Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ forbid, the fluff of carpet, in case of sticking to the lungs as result of inhaling, could give rise to the danger of cancer. Sometimes, children vomit or urinate on the carpet; similarly, cats, rats and lizards also excrete on them. In case of carpet’s being impure, it is not even bothered to purify it. Would that the trend of using carpets in Masajid die out!

How to Purify an Impure Carpet
Wash the impure area of the carpet and hang it; let it remain hanging till the drops of water stop dripping from it. Then, wash and hang it for the second time and let it remain hanging until it stops dripping. Then, wash and hang it for the third time in the same way, it will become pure when it stops dripping. Purify mats, shoes and such clay pots that absorb water according to the same method.

Another way of purifying impure carpet, cloth etc. is to keep it dipped into flowing water (for example, a river, stream, or under a tap) for the amount of time till one gets the strong probability that the impurity has been carried away by the water. If a small child urinates on a carpet, just splashing a few drops of water onto it will not purify it. Remember, the urine of even one day’s old infant is impure. (For detailed information, go through Bahar-e-Shari’at volume one, page. 396-405)

6.Qa’dah-e-Akhirah
After the completion of all Rak’at of Salah, it is Fard to sit in Qa’dah for the amount of time in which complete Tashahhud (اَلتَّحِیَّات) up to ورسولُہٗ is recited. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 70, vol. 1) If the Musalli offering a four-Rak’at Fard Salah did not perform Qa’dah after the fourth Rak’at and has not yet performed the Sajdah of the fifth Rak’at, he has to sit down. However, if he has performed the Sajdah of the fifth Rak’at (or in case of Fajr, did not sit after two Rak’at and did the Sajdah of the third Rak’at or in case of Maghrib, did not sit after the third Rak’at and did the Sajdah of the fourth Rak’at), the Fard Salah will become invalid in all these cases. In these cases, he should add one more Rak’at except Maghrib Salah. (Ghunyah, pp. 290)

7.Khuruj-e-Bisun’ihi
Khuruj-e-Bisun’ihi i.e. after the Qa’dah-e-Akhirah, deliberately saying Salam, talking or any other such act that finishes the Salah. However, if any other deliberate act except Salam was found, repeating such a Salah will be Wajib, and if any such act was found without intention, the Salah will become invalid. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 516, vol. 1)

Six Pre-Conditions of Salah

1.Taharat (Purity)

The body, clothes and place of Salah must be pure from all types of impurities. (Sharh-ul-Wiqayah, pp. 156, vol. 1)

2.Sitr-e-‘Awrat (Veiling)

  1. Men’s body from navel to the knees (including knees) must be covered whereas women’s whole body must be covered except the following five parts: Face, both palms, soles of both feet. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 95, vol. 2) However, according to a Mufta bihi Qawl (valid verdict), the Salah of a woman will be valid even if her both hands, up to wrist, and feet, up to ankle, are completely uncovered.
  2. If someone wears such thin clothing that exposes such a part of the body which is Fard to be concealed in Salah, or that exposes the color of skin (of that part), the Salah will not be valid. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 480, vol.1) (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 58, vol. 1)
  3. Nowadays, the trend of wearing thin clothing is growing. Wearing such thin clothes that expose any part of thigh or Sitr is Haram even when not offering Salah. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 480, vol. 1)
  4. Wearing such thick skin-tight clothes that do not expose the color of the body but reveal the shape of Sitr will not invalidate the Salah but it is not permissible for other people to look at that part of the body. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 103, vol. 2) Coming in front of others wearing such skin-tight clothes is prohibited and it is more strictly forbidden for women. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 480, vol. 1)
  5. Some women wear such thin shawl made of muslin etc. that reveals the blackness of their hair during Salah or wear such dress through which the color of body-parts is visible; the Salah offered wearing such a dress will not be valid.

3.Istiqbal-e-Qiblah

Istiqbal-e-Qiblah means facing towards the Qiblah during Salah.

  1. If the Musalli (the one offering Salah) turns his chest deliberately from Qiblah without a valid reason, his Salah will become invalid even if he turns back to Qiblah instantly. However, if his chest urns unintentionally and he turns back to Qiblah within the amount of time in which ‘سُبّحٰنَ اللّٰہ‘ can be uttered thrice, his Salah will not be invalid. (Munya-tul-Musalli, pp. 193) (Bahr-ur-Raiq, pp. 497, vol. 1)
  2. If only face turned from Qiblah, it is Wajib to turn the face back towards Qibalah instantly. Although the Salah will not become invalid in this case, it is Makruh-e-Tahrimi to do so without a valid reason. (Al-Marja’-us-Sabiq)
  3. If someone is present at such a place where there is neither any means to know the direction of Qiblah nor any such Muslim whom he could ask the direction, so, in this case, he has to do Taharri,e. ponder (as to where the direction of Qiblah may be). He should turn towards the direction in which his heart guides him. This is the direction of Qiblah from him. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 143, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 143, vol.2)
  4. If someone offered Salah doing Taharri and got to know later on that the direction in which he offered Salah was not the correct direction of Qiblah, his Salah will still be valid; it does not need to be repeated. (Tanvir-ul-Absar, pp. 143, vol. 2)
  5. If someone is offering Salah doing Taharri, another person sees him and starts offering Salah facing the same direction without doing Taharri, his Salah will not be valid; he will have to do his own Taharri. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 143, vol. 2)

4.Waqt (Timings)

It is necessary to offer Salah within its stipulated time. For example, today’s ‘Asr Salah is to be offered, it is necessary that the time for ‘Asr has begun. ‘Asr Salah will not be valid if it is offered before the beginning of its time.

  1. Usually, the time-tables (of Salah) are displayed in Masajid. The timings of Salah can easily be ascertained with the help of the time-tables compiled by reliable Tawqit Dan (Experts in Salah / fasting timings) and certified by Ahl-e-Sunnah scholars.
  2. It is Mustahab for Islamic sisters to offer Fajr Salah in its initial time; as for other Salah, it is better for them to wait for men’s Jama’at, and offer Salah after the Jama’at ends. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 30, vol. 2)

Three Makruh Times

  1. From the time of sunrise up to the next 20 minutes.
  2. From 20 minutes before sunset to the time of sunset.
  3. Form Nisf-un-Nahar to the time when the sun begins to decline. No Salah, whether it is Fard, Wajib, Nafl or Qada is permissible during these three times.However, if someone has not offered ‘Asr Salah and Makruh time has started, he can still offer it, but delaying Salah to this extent is Haram. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 52, vol. 1) (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 37, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 37, vol. 2) (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 454, vol. 1)

If the Makruh Time Begins during Salah, then …?
The Salam of ‘Asr Salah should be performed at least 20 minutes before the sunset. A’la Hadrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan عَلَیّہِ رَحّمَۃُ الرَّحّمٰن says, “It is preferable to delay Sala-tul-‘Asr as long as possible, but it should be completed before the Makruh time begins.” (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jad id), pp. 156, vol. 5) “If someone takes precaution and lengthens Salah such that the Makruh time begins during his Salah, even then, he will not be objected to.” (ibid, pp. 139)

5.Niyyat (Intention)
Niyyat means firm intention in heart. (Tanvir-ul-Absar, pp. 111, vol. 2)

  1. Although verbal intention is not necessary, it is better; provided the intention is present in heart. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 65, vol. 1) Further, making intention in Arabic language isn’t necessary; it can be made in any other language. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 113, vol 2)
  2. As regards intention, there is no significance of verbal utterance. For example, if the intention of Zuhar Salah was present in heart but he word ‘Asr instead of Zuhar was mistakenly uttered, Zuhar Salah will still be valid. (ibid, pp. 112)
  3. The least level of intention is that if someone asks as to which Salah is about to be offered, one should reply promptly. If he is in such a state that he has to recall before replying, then his Salah will not be valid. (ibid, pp. 113)
  4. If the Salah is Fard, the intention of Fard is also necessary. For example, the intention ‘I am offering the Fard of today’s Zuhar’ is to be present in heart. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 117, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 117, vol. 2)
  5. Even though it is correct to make just a general intention of Salah for Nafl, Sunnat and Tarawih, but it is safer to make the intention of Tarawih or current Sunnah while offering Tarawih; as for other Sunnah Salah, one should make the intention of Sunnah or that of the following of the Prophet because some Mashaikh (scholars) consider a general intention insufficient for Sunnah Salah. (Munya-tul-Musalli, pp. 225)
  6. For Nafl Salah, a general intention of Salh is sufficient even if ‘Nafl’ is not included in intention. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 116, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 116, vol. 2)
  7. The intention ‘My face is towards Qiblah’ is not a condition. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 129, vol. 2)
  8. While offering Salah following an Imam (in Jama’at), a Muqtadi can make the following intention as well: “I intent to offer the same Salah that the Imam is offering”. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 67, vol. 1)
  9. The intention for the funeral Salah is: “This Salah is for Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ and the supplication is for this deceased person.” (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 126, vol. 2) (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 126, vol. 2)
  10. It is necessary to make the intention of Wajid for a Wajid Salah and it has to be specified as well. For example, Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Adha, Nazr (votive), the Salah after Tawaf (Wajid-ut-Tawaf) or the Nafl Salah that was deliberately cancelled, as the Qada of such a Salah is also Wajid. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 119, vol. 2)
  11. Though Sajda-e-Shukr is Nafl, its intention is also necessary. For example, the intention ‘I am going to perform Sajda-e-Shukr’ is to be present in heart. (ibid)
  12. According to the author of ‘Nahr-ul-Faiq’, intention is necessary even for Sajda-e-Sahw, (ibid) i.e. one has to make intention in his heart that he is performing Sajda-e-Sahw.

6.Takbir-e-Tahrimah

Starting Salah by uttering اَللّٰہُ اَکّبَرّ is compulsory. (Bahar-e-Shari’at, pp. 500, vol. 1)

How to Perform Salah?

How to Perform Salah?

Excellence of Durud Sharif

The Prophet of mankind, the peace of our heart and mind, the most generous and kind said to the one glorifying Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ and reciting Durud Sharif having offered Salah, ‘Present your supplication, it will be answered; ask (for anything), you will be granted.’ (Sunan Nasai, pp. 220, Hadis 1281)

Dear Islamic brothers! Many virtues of offering Salah and severe punishments for abandoning it have been stated in the Quran and Ahadis. Therefore, the 9th Ayah of Sura-tul-Munafiqun in Parah 28 says:

Salah
Salah

O believers! Do not let your wealth or your children distract you from the remembrance of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ and those who do so are at lose.
(Kanzul Iman [Translation of Quran])

Hadrat Sayyiduna Imam Muhammad bin Ahmad Zahabi رَحّمَۃُاللّٰہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیہ narrates that the honorable Mufassirin say, “In this Holy Ayah, the remembrance of Allahعَزَّوَجَلَّrefers to the five daily Salah, therefore, the one who does not offer his Salah at its specified time because of his preoccupation with his wealth (i.e. trading), cultivation and employment, goods and his children, is at loss. (Kitab-ul-Kabair, p. 20)

The Very First Question on the Day of Judgment
The beloved and blessed Prophet   said, “On the Day of Judgment, the very first question that will be asked to man out of his deeds will be about Salah; if his Salah is correct he will succeed but if it is incomplete, he will be disgraced and will suffer loss.” (Al-Mujam-ul-Awsat-lit-Tabrani, pp. 32, vol. 3, Hadis 3782)

Nur for Musalli
The Prophet of mankind, the peace of our heart and mind, the most generous and kind said, “The one who secures his Salah, the Salah will be Nur, evidence and salvation for him on the day of judgment; and the one who does not protect it, there will be no Nur, evidence or salvation for him on the Day of Judgment and such a person will be kept with Pharaoh, Qarun, Haman and Ubay bin Khalaf on the day of judgement.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad, pp. 574, vol. 2, Hadis 6587)

Whom will people be resurrected with?
Dear Islamic brothers! Hadrat Sayyiduna Imam Muhammad bin Ahmad Zahabi رَحّمَۃُاللّٰہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیہ narrates, “Some honorable scholars  رَحّمَۃُاللّٰہِ تَعَالٰی say that the one who abandons Salah will be resurrected with Pharaoh, Qarun, Haman and Ubay bin Khalaf on the Day of Judgment because people usually abandon their Salah due to wealth, rule, ministry and trade.”

The one who abandons his Salah due to being occupied with state affairs will be resurrected with Pharaoh. The one who abandons his Salah owing to his wealth will be resurrected with Qarun. If the reason of abandoning Salah is ministry, he will be resurrected with Pharaoh’s minister, Haman and if the reason of abandoning Salah is busyness in trade, he will be resurrected with Ubay bin Khalaf, the head trader of the unbelievers in Makkah-tul-Mukarramah.” (Kitab-ul-Kabair, p. 21)

Salah even in Severely Wounded State
When Hadrat Sayyiduna ‘Umar Faruq-e-A’zam رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ was seriously wounded as a result of an attack, he was told, “Ya Amir-ul-Muminin رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ, (it is time to offer) Salah!” He رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ said, “Yes, listen! The one who abandons Salah has no share in Islam.” He رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ offered Salah despite being severely wounded. (ibid, pp.22)

Causes of Nur or Darkness for Salah
Hadrat Sayyiduna ‘Ubadah bin Samit رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ narrates that our Makki Madani Mustafa said, “The one who makes Wudu properly, stands for Salah and completes its Ruku’, Sujud and recitation, his Salah says, ‘May Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ secure you as you have secured me!’ The Salah is then elevated to the sky and there is glare and brilliance for it. The portals of the sky are opened for it and it is presented in the court of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ and such Salah intercedes for that Musalli (the one who offered it).”
On the contrary, if he does not complete its Ruku’, Sujud and recitation, the Salah says, “May Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ discard you as you have distorted me!’ The Salah covered in darkness is then taken to the sky. The portals of the sky are closed for it and it is then bundled up like an old piece of cloth and thrown onto the face of that Musalli.” (Kanz-ul-‘Ummal, pp. 129, vol. 7, Hadis 19049)

A Cause of Bad End
Hadrat Sayyiduna Imam Bukhari رَحّمَۃُاللّٰہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیہ says that Hadrat Sayyiduna Huzayfah bin Yaman رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ saw a person performing his Rudu’ and Sujud improperly during his Salah, so he رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ said to the person, “If you die offering Salah in the way as you have just offered, you will not die in accordance with the teachings of Hadrat Sayyiduna Muhammad .” (Sahih Bukhari, pp. 284, vol. 1, Hadis 808)

The narration in Sunan Nasai also states that he رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ asked (the person), “For how long have you been offering Salah in this way?” The person replied, “For forty years.” He رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ said, “You haven’t offered Salah at all for the past forty years; if you die in this state, you will not die following the religion of Muhammad .” (Sunan Nasai, pp. 225, Hadis 1309)

The Thief of Salah
Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Qatadah رَضَیَ اللّٰہّ تَعَالٰی عَنّہُ narrates that beloved Rasul of Allah said, “The worst thief is the one who steals from his Salah.” He was humbly asked, “Ya Rasulallah , who is the thief of Salah?” He replied, “The one who does not perform its Ruku’ or Sujud properly.” (Musnad Imam Ahmad, pp. 386, vol. 8, Hadis 22705)

Two Types of Thieves
Commenting on the foregoing Hadis, the famous Mufassir of Quran, Hakim-ul-Ummat Hadrat Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan رَحّمَۃُاللّٰہِ تَعَالٰی عَلَیہ says, “It became obvious that the thief of Salah is worse than that of money because the thief of money gains at least some worldly profit though he is punished, the thief of Salah will be punished but he will not gain any benefit at all. The thief of money violates the right of people but the thief of Salah, violates that of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ. It is the condition of those offering defective Salah; so those who do not offer Salah at all should learn a lesson.” (Mirat-ul Manajih, pp. 78, vol. 2)

Dear Islamic brothers! Many people do not offer Salah at all and even most of those offering Salah are deprived of offering Salah properly due to the lack of interest in learning Sunnah. Therefore, a brief method of offering Salah is being presented. For the sake of Madinah! Please read it very carefully and correct your Salah.

Method of Salah (Hanafi)
Stand erect facing the Qiblah in the state of Wudu with a distance of four fingers between feet. Now raise both hands making thumbs touch the ear-lobes. Fingers should neither be too close together nor too wide apart; instead, they should remain in a normal position, palms facing the Qiblah. Eyesight should be focused at the place of Sajdah. Now make a firm intention (in your heart) of the Salah that you are about to offer. To say it verbally is better (for example, “I intend to offer four Rak’st for today’s Fard Zuhar Salah.”) If you are in a Jama’at, add the words “following this Imam.”

Now, utter Takbir-e-Tahrimah (اَللّٰہُ اَکّبَرّ) lowering your hands and fold them below navel with right palm on the back of left wrist joint, three middle fingers straight on the back of left forearm and thumb and small finger making a loop on either side of wrist. Now recite Sana like this:

Salah
Salah

Glory is to You Ya Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ! I praise You, Blessed is Your name, Your greatness is exalted and none is worthy of worship except You.

Then recite the Ta’aw-wuz:

اَعُوذُبِاللہِ مِنَ الشَّیطٰنِ الرَّجِیمِ ۂ
I seek protection from Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ against the accursed Sata.

Then recite the Tasmiyah:

Bismillah Image
Bismillah


Allah’s name I begin with, the Most Kind, the Most Merciful.

Then recite the whole of Surah Fatihah:

Salah
Salah

All praise to Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ, Rab عَزَّوَجَلَّ of the worlds, the most Kind and Merciful. Owner of the Day of Requital. We worship You alone, and beg You alone for help. Make us tread on the straight path; the path of those whom You have favored, not of those who have earned (Your) wrath and nor of those who have gone astray.
(Kanzul Iman [Translation of Quran])

After you finish Surah Fatihah, utter اٰمِین (Amin) in low volume and then recite either three short Ayahs or one long Ayah that is equivalent to three short Ayahs or any Surah such as Surah Ikhlas.

Bismillah Image
Bismillah

Allah’s name I begin with, the Most Kind, the Most Merciful

Salah
Salah


Say He is Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ, the One. Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ is the Independent. He begot none nor was He begotten. And nor is anyone equal to Him.

Now bow down for Ruku’ uttering اَللّٰہُ اَکّبَرّ. Hold knees firmly with both palms and keep fingers spread out. The back should be straight and head should also be in the straightness of the back (not lower or higher than the back); in Ruku’, focus eyesight at feet. Recite سُبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّعَظِیّمِ (Glory to my Magnificent Rab عَزَّوَجَلَّ.) at least three times in Ruku’. Then utter the Tasmi’ سَمعَ اللّٰہُ لِمَنّ حَمِدَہ (Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ heard whoever praised Him) and stand erect; the standing after Ruku’ is called Qawmah. If you are a Munfarid then utter اَللَّھُمَّ رَبَّنَاوَلَکَ الّحَمّد (O our Rab عَزَّوَجَلَّ! All praise is for You).

Then, go down for Sajdah uttering اَللّٰہُ اَکّبَرّ placing your knees first on the ground, then hands and then head (nose first and then the forehead) in between your hands. Make it sure that your nasal bone (not just the tip of your nose) and your forehead properly rest on the ground; in Sajdah, focus eyesight at nose; keep arms separated from sides, belly from thighs and thighs from shins (but if you are in a Jama’at then keep arms close to sides).

The tips of all ten toes should be towards Qiblah with their soles flattened with the ground. Your palms should be flat on the ground with fingers facing Qiblah, but do not keep the forearms touching the ground.

Now recite سُبّحٰنَ رَبِّیَ الّاَعّلٰی at least three times; then lift your head (forehead first then nose), then hands and sit up straight; keep your right foot upright with its toes facing Qiblah; lay your left foot flat and sit on it; place your palms on your thighs close to your knees with your fingers facing Qiblah and their tips by the knees.

Sitting in between two Sujud is called Jalsah. One must stay in this position for at least the amount of time in which سُبّحٰنَ اللّٰہ can once be uttered (to utter اَللّٰھُمَّ اغّفِرّلِی (“Ya Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ forgive me.”) in Jalsah is Mustahab).

Now, perform the second Sajdah uttering اَللّٰہُ اَکّبَرّ in the same way as the first one.

Now, raise the head first; then stand up with the support of your toes placing your hands on your knees. Do not lean hands unnecessarily on the ground while standing up. You have now completed one Rak’at.

In the second  Rak’at, start with بِسّمِ اللہِ الرَّحّمٰنِ الرَّحِیّمِ and then recite Sura-e-Fatihah and another Surah, then do the Ruku’ and Sujud as you did in the first Rak’st.

After completing the second Sajdah (of the second Rak’at) sit up straight with your right foot upright and your left foot flat.

To sit after the second Sajdah of the second Rak’at is called Qa’dah.

Recite Tashahhud in Qa’dah:

Salah
Salah

All types of worship i.e. oral, physical and monetary are for Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ. Salutation be upon you Ya Nabi and the mercy and blessings of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ. Salutation be upon us and the pious men of Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ and I testify that Muhammad is His (distinguished) Servant and Rasul .

When you are about to utter the word لا in Tashahhud, form a circle with the middle finger and thumb of your right hand and put the tips of your ring-finger and the pinkie at palm; as soon as you begin to utter the word “لا “ (immediately after “اَشّھَدّاَلّ“), raise your index finger without waving it side to side. When you reach اِلَّا put it down and straighten your all fingers out instantly. If you are offering more than two Rak’at, stand up erect uttering اَللّٰہُ اَکّبَرّ.

If it is Fard Salah, recite only بِسّمِ اللہِ الرَّحّمٰنِ الرَّحِیّمِ and Sura-e-Fatihah in the third and fourth Rak’at, an additional Surah is not needed. The rest of the acts must be performed in the same way as before.

However, if it is a Sunnah Salah or Nafl Salah, then Surah shall be added after Surah Fatihah in the third and fourth Rak’at (You must remember that if you are offering the Salah following an Imam, you cannot recite anything in the Qiyam of any Rak’at, you must stand quietly). Once you have offered all four Rak’at, sit in Qa’dah-e-Akhirah, and then recite Tashahhud and the Durud-e-Ibrahim عَلَیّہِ السَّلاَم.

Salah
Salah

O Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ send Durud on (our Master) Muhammad and on his descendents as You sent Durud on (out Master) Ibrahim عَلَیّہِ السَّلاَم. and his descendents. Indeed you alone are praise worthy and Glorious. O Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ shower Your blessings on (our Master) Muhammad and his descendents as You showered blessings on (our Master) Ibrahim عَلَیّہِ السَّلاَم. and his descendents. Indeed You are praise worthy and Glorious.

Then recite any Du’a-e-Masurah e.g.

Salah
Salah

Ya Allah عَزَّوَجَلَّ! Our Rab عَزَّوَجَلَّ! Grant us the good of this world and the good of the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the hell.

Then, to finish the Salah, first turn face towards right shoulder saying اَلسَّلاَمُ عَلَیکُم وَرَحمَۃُاللّٰہ and then towards left shoulder saying the same words. Now your Salah has completed. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 504-506, vol. 1, etc.)

A Few Differences in the Salah of Islamic Sisters
The afore-mentioned method of Salah is for an Imam or a man offering individually. There are some differences between the Salah of Islamic sisters and that of Islamic brothers. At the time of Takbir-e-Tahrimah, Islamic sisters should raise their hands up to their shoulders; their hands should remain covered in their shawl. In Qiyam, Islamic sisters should place their left palm on chest just below their breast and put the right palm on the back of the left palm. Islamic sisters should bow slightly in Ruku’ i.e. to the extent of placing their hands on their knees. They should neither apply weight to their knees nor hold them; their fingers should be close together and feet should be slightly bent i.e. not completely straight, like men. Islamic sisters should perform Sajdah keeping their body parts close together, i.e. arms touching sides, belly touching thighs, thighs touching shins and shins touching the ground. In Sajdah and Qa’dah, they should draw their feet out towards the right side.

In Qa’dah, they should sit on their left buttock. They should place their right and left hands on the middle of their right and left thighs respectively. The rest method is like that of men. (Rad-dul-Muhtar, pp. 259, vol. 2) (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 74, vol. 1, etc.)

Both Should Pay Attention!
Some of the acts described in the method of Salah for Islamic brothers and Islamic sisters are Fard without which the Salah will not be valid whereas some acts are Wajib leaving which deliberately is a sin; repenting of it and repeating such a Salah is Wajid. In case of missing a Wajid forgetfully, Sajdah Sahw becomes Wajid. Some of the acts in Salah are Sunnat-e-Muakkadah; Making a habit of abandoning a Sunnat-e-Muakkadah is a sin. Similarly, some of the acts in Salah are Mustahab; performing a Mustahab is an act of Sawab while leaving a Mustahab is not a sin. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 507, vol. 1, etc.)

Wudu | How to perform Wudu?

The Intense Love of Usman-e-Ghani رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ for the Exalted Prophet 

Hadrat Sayyiduna ‘Usman-e-Ghani رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ once asked someone to bring water at a particular place and performed Wudu. Thereafter, he رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ smiled and asked his companions if they knew why he had smiled. Then, he رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ himself answered, “Once the beloved and blessed Prophet صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیّہِ وَسَلَّم performed Wudu at this very place; then smiled and asked his companions, ‘Do you know why I smiled?’ The companions replied, ‘Allah عز وجل and His Rasul صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیّہِ وَسَلَّم know the best.’ The Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیّہِ وَسَلَّم said, ‘When a person performs Wudu and washed his hands, the sins of his hands are washed away; when he washes his face, the sins of his face are washed away; when he wipes his head, the sins of his head are washed away and when he washes his feet, the sins of his feet are washed away.””
(Musnad Imam Ahmad, pp. 130, vol. 1, Hadis 415)

Dear Islamic Brothers! Did you notice how the blessed companions عليهم الرضوان would imitate every act and every Sunnah of the Holy Prophet صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیّہِ وَسَلَّم with great passion? This narration also provides us a remedy for sins. الحمد ﷲ عز وجل rinsing the mouth results in the sins of the mouth being washed away, washing the nose results in the sins of the nose being washed away, washing the face results in the sins of the face including the eye lashes being washed away, washing the hands results in the sins of hands and those beneath the nails being washed away, wiping the head (and ears) results in the sins of the head and ears being washed away and washing the feet results in sins of both feet including those beneath the toenails being washed away.

Sins Wiped Away

Hadrat ‘Allamah ‘Abdul Wahhab Sha’rani رَحمَۃُ اللہِ تَعالٰی عَلَیہ says that once Hadrat Sayyiduna Imam-e-Azam Hanifah رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ was in the Wudu area of the Jamiah Masjid in Kufah where he saw a young man performing Wudu . Drops of used water of Wudu were tricking from his body. The Imam رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ said, “Son! Repent of disobeying your parents.” The young man instantly replied, “I repent.” The Imam رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ then saw drops of water dripping from the body of another man and said, “O brother! Repent from fornication.” The man replied, “I repent.” The Imam رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ then saw drops of water dripping from the body of a third person and said, “Repent of taking wine and listening to music.” He replied, “I repent.” Hadrat Sayyiduna Imam Abu Hanifah رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ had been given the power of Kashf (spiritual insight) and was able to see the faults of people. He prayed Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ to take back this faculty of intuition from him. Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ answered his prayer and henceforth he could no longer see the sins of people being washed away during Wudu. (Al-Mizan-ul-Kubra, vol. 1, pp. 130)

The Whole Body Purified

According to summary of two sayings of the Prophet of mankind, the peace of our heart and mind, the generous and kind صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیّہِ وَسَلَّم, “The person who begins Wudu by saying بِسّمِ اللہ, his whole body from head to toe gets purified and the one who does not say بِسّمِ اللہ before Wudu, only washed portion of his body gets purified.” (Sunan Dar Qutni, pp. 108, 109, vol. 1, Hadis 228, 229)

Excellence of Sleeping in the State of Wudu

A Hadis states, “The person who sleeps in the state of Wudu is similar to one who worships in the state of fasting.” (Kanz-ul-‘Ummal, pp. 123, vol. 9, Hadis 25994)

The One who Dies in the State of Wudu is a Shahid

The beloved and blessed Rasul صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیّہِ وَسَلَّم said to Hadrat Sayyiduna Anas رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ, “Son! If you have the capability of remaining in the state of Wudu all the time, then do so, because Shahadat is written down for the one whose soul is captured by the angel of death in the state of Wudu.” (Shu’bul Iman, pp. 29, vol. 3, 2783)
A’la Hadrat Imam Ahmad Raza khan عَلَیّہِ رَحّمَۃُ الرَّحّمٰن says, “Keeping Wudu all the time is Mustahab.”

A Tip to Avoid Troubles

Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ said to Hadrat Sayyiduna Musa عَلٰی نَبِیِّنَاوَعَلَیہِ الصَّلوۃُ وَالسَّلَام, “O Musa! You should take yourself to task if you face a trouble when not in state of Wudu.” (Shu’bul Iman, pp. 29, vol. 3, 2782)

“Remaining in state of Wudu all times is a Sunnah of Islam.” (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 702, vol. 1)

Seven Benefits of Keeping Wudu

Imam-e-Ahl-e-Sunnat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan عَلَیّہِ رَحّمَۃُ الرَّحّمٰن says, “Some saints رَحِمَھُمُ اللہُ تَعَالٰی have said that anyone who stays in a state of Wudu at all times may be awarded with seven bounties by Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ:

  1. Angels will be enthusiastic to avail his company.
  2. The holy pen will keep on writing good deeds for him.
  3. His organs will perform Tasbih of Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.
  4. He will never miss his Takbir-e-Tahrimah (first Takbir of Salah).
  5. When he sleeps, Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ sends Angels who will protect him from the evils of jinns and human beings.
  6. He will feel easiness in severe fits of death.
  7. He will remain in the safeguard of Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ as long as he is in the state of Wudu.” (ibid, pp. 702, 703)

Double Sawab

No doubt, it is difficult to perform Wudu when It’s cold or when we are tired or suffering from flu, headache or any other illness, but if someone performs Wudu in such a state of difficulty, according to Hadis he will be awarded twice the Sawab. (Al-Mujam-ul-Awsat-lit-Tabrani, pp. 106, vol. 4, Hadis 5366)

Method of Wudu (Hanafi)

It is Mustahab to sit on an elevated place facing Qiblah. To make intention for Wudu is Sunnah. Intention means to intend by heart. Verbal intention is preferable provided the same is present in the heart. Therefore, make intention as, “I am performing Wudu in order to fulfil the commandment of Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ and to attain purity.” Recite بِسّمِ اللہ as it is also a Sunnah, rather say بِسّمِ اللہ وَالّحَمّدُلِلّٰہ, as angels will continue writing good deeds as long as one is in the state of Wudu. (Majma’-uz-Zawaid, pp. 513, vol. 1, Hadis 1112) Wash both hands up to the wrists three times each and afterwards do Khilal (to intermix fingers of both hands to dampen the gaps) of the fingers (with the tap closed). Now use Miswak three times in right & left, upper & lower teeth and after each cycle, rinse the Miswak. Hujja-tul-Islam Imam Muhammad Ghazali عَلَیہِ رَحّمَۃُاللہِ الوَالی says, “Whilst using a Miswak, make intention to clean mouth for the recitation of the Holy Quran and for the Zikr (Remembrance) of Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.” (Ihya-ul-‘Ulum, pp. 182, vol. 1)

Now rinse your mouth three times with handfuls of water (closing the tap each time) using right hand making sure that water reaches all parts of the mouth and gargle as well if you are not in fasting. Now sniff water three times in nose up to soft flesh using three handfuls (now half handful is sufficient) of right hand (closing the tap  each time) and if not in fasting, snuffle water up to the inside end of the nose. Now clean the nose by left hand (keeping the tap turned off) and insert small finger inside holes of the nose. Wash the whole face three times such that water must flow on every part from the top of the forehead (the point where the hair naturally beings to grow) to the bottom of the chin and from one earlobe to the other. If one has beard and he is not in the state of Ihram (Special state for Haj / ‘Umrah) then do Khilal (with the tap turned off) of beard by inserting the fingers into the beard from the neck and bringing them out towards the front. Now wash the right arm from the tips of the fingers up to (and including) the elbow three times and then wash the left arm in the same manner. To wash up to half of the upper arm is Mustahab. Most people take a small amount of water in their hand and pour it over their arm towards the elbow three times. But in this method, there is risk that water would not flow over the edges of wrist and arm. Therefore, wash arms as mentioned. Now there is no need to pour a handful of water over the arms. In fact, doing this (without a valid justification) is wastage of water. Now (with the tap closed) perform moistening of the head. This should be done by joining the tips of the three fingers, other than the index fingers and thumbs, of both hands and placing them on the top of forehead. Move back these fingers from forehead to the back of the neck without letting the palms touch the head. Each palm should then be placed on either side of the head and pulled across the sides back towards the forehead. During this, the index fingers and thumbs should not touch the head at all. Now use the index fingers to wipe the insides of the ears, the thumbs for the back of ears and the small fingers should be inserted inside the holes of ears. Now moisten the back of the neck using the back of fingers of both hands. Some people, in addition, wipe the front of the neck, the forearms and wrists; this is not Sunnah. Make a habit of turning the tap off before wiping the head. To waste water by leaving the tap open fully or partially is a sin. Now wash both feet three times, first the right and then the left, beginning from the toes up to the top of the ankles. It is Mustahab to wash up to halfway up the shin. To do Khilal between the fingers of both feet is Sunnah. The tap should be kept turned off during Khilal. Its Mustahab method is to start doing Khilal from little toe of the right foot to its big toe using the small finger of the left hand, and then, doing Khilal from the big toe of the left foot to its little toe using the same small finger of the left hand. (Common books)

Hujja-tul-Islam Imam Muhammad Ghazali عَلَیہِ رَحّمَۃُاللہِ الوَالی says, “while washing each organ, one should hope that the sins of that organ are being washed away.” (Ihya-ul-‘Ulum, pp. 183, vol. 1)

Recite this Dua after Wudu (with Durud Sharif before and after it).

Wazu k bad ki dua
Wazu k bad ki dua

Translation
O Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ! Make me amongst those who repent abundantly and make me amongst those who stay clean.
(Jami’ Tirmizi, pp. 121, vol. 1, Hadis 55)

Allah Eight Portals of Heaven get Open

One Hadis mentions, “If a person does Wudu properly and reads Kalima-e-Shahadah, all 8 portals of Heaven are opened for him and he may enter through any one he desires.” (Sunan Darimi, pp. 196, vol. 1, Hadis 716)

The Excellence of Reciting Sura-e-Qadr after Wudu

One sacred Hadis mentions, “If a person reads Sura-e-Qadr once after Wudu, he will be amongst the Siddiqin and if he reads it twice he will be amongst the Shuhada and if he reads it three times, Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ will keep him with His prophets عَلَیّھمُ السَّلَام on the Day of Judgement.” (Kanz-ul-‘Ummal, pp. 132, vol. 9, Hadis 26085, Al-Havi-lil-Fatawa-lis-Suyuti, pp.  402, 403, vol. 1)

Eyesight Never Goes Weak

If a person looks up to the sky after Wudu and reads Sura-e-Qadr, اِنّ شَآءَﷲ عَزَّوَجَلَّ his eyesight will never become weak. (Masaail-ul-Quran, pp. 291)

Four Faraid of Wudu

  1. Washing the face
  2. Washing both arms including the elbows
  3. Moistening a quarter of the head
  4. Washing both feet including the ankles. (Fatawa-e-‘Alamgiri, pp. 3,4,5, vol. 1, Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 288, vol. 1)

Definition of ‘Washing’

Washing an organ means flowing of at least two drops of water on each part of that organ. If the organ is simply moistened by rubbing a wet hand over it, or if only one drop of water flows over a section of it then it will not be considered washed and the Wudu or Ghusl will not be valid in that case. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 218, vol. 1, Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 288, vol. 1)

Fourteen Sunan of Wudu

Some Sunan and Mustahab acts have already been mentioned under the heading “Method of Wudu (Hanafi).” Further details are as under.

  1. Making intention
  2. Reading بِسّمِ اللہ. If بِسّمِ اللہ وَالّحَمّدُلِلّٰہ is read before making Wudu, angels will write good deeds for him as long as one is the state of Wudu. (Majma’-uz-Zawaid, pp. 513, vol. 1. Hadis 1112)
  3. Washing both hands up to the wrists three times
  4. Using Miswak three times
  5. Rinsing the mouth three times using three handfuls of water
  6. Gargling, if not in fasting
  7. Sniffing water into the nose three times using three half handfuls of water
  8. Doing Khilal of beard (when not in the state of Ihram)
  9. Doing Khilal of the hand fingers
  10. Doing Khilal of foot toes
  11. Moistening the whole head only once
  12. Moistening the ears
  13. Maintaining the order of the Faraid (i.e. washing the face first, then the arms, then wiping the head and then washing the feet)
  14. Washing next part before the previously washed one dries. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 293, 294, vol. 1)

Twenty-Nine Mustahabbat of Wudu

  1. Facing the Qiblah
  2. Making Wudu at an elevated place
  3. Making Wudu sitting
  4. Stroking hand on organs while washing them
  5. Doing Wudu calmly
  6. Moistening the organs of Wudu prior to washing, especially in winter
  7. Avoiding taking assistance in making Wudu from anyone without necessity
  8. Rinsing the mouth using the right hand
  9. Sniffing water into the nose using the right hand
  10. Using the left hand to clean the nose
  11. Inserting the small finger of the left hand into the nostrils
  12. Moistening the back of the neck using the back of the hands
  13. Inserting the wet small finger of each hand into each ear whilst wiping the ears
  14. Displacing the finger ring if it is loosely fit and it is sure that water has flowed on skin beneath it. If ring is snug fit, it is mandatory to displace the ring so that water may flow beneath it.
  15. Doing Wudu before the beginning of the time of the Salah if one is not a Mazur-e-Shari [Detailed rulings regarding Mazur-e-Shari are presented ahead in this booklet].
  16. For a person who performs Wudu perfectly i.e. whose no due part remains unwashed, taking special care for washing of inward corners of his eyes towards nose, ankles, heels, soles, thick muscles above heals, the gaps between fingers and elbows is Mustahab. For non-caring people, it is Fard to take special care for these parts as it has been observed that such parts often remain dry due to carelessness. Such carelessness is Haram and to take care is Fard.
  17. Keeping the lota (ewer) towards left side. In case of using a tub or dish for Wudu, keep it towards right side.
  18. While washing the face, wide-spreading the water on the forehead such that some additional upper part may get washed
  19. Enhancing the brilliance of face and
  20. Arms and feet; this means spreading water over a bit more areas around the Fard areas, e.g. washing the arms to half length above the elbow and washing the feet beyond the ankles up to half length of the shin.
  21. Using both hands for washing the face
  22. Starting from the fingers when washing the hands and feet
  23. Wiping away droplets of each organ by hands after washing so that drops of water may not fall upon body or clothes especially when one has to enter a Masjid because dripping of Wudu water-drops on to the floor of the Masjid is Makruh-e-Tahrimi
  24. Remembrance of the intention for Wudu at the time of washing / wiping of organs
  25. Reciting Durud Sharif and Kalima-e-Shahadat in addition to بِسّمِ اللہ at the beginning
  26. Do not unnecessarily mop the washed organs and if mopping is necessary, avoid drying them completely i.e. leave some wetness, because on the Day of Judgment it will be weighed with the pious deeds.
  27. Do not jerk hands after Wudu to remove droplets of water as it is Satan’s fan.
  28. Sprinkling water on that part of Shalwar (A type of loose trouser) which is closer to urinary organ.
    When sprinkling water on to the Shalwar, it is better to keep the front part of the Shalwar hidden under the kurta. In fact, keeping this part of the Shalwar concealed during the whole Wudu and at all other times using Kameez or a shawl is closer to modesty.
  29. Offering two Rakat Nafl Salah after Wudu if it is not a Makruh time. These Nawafil are called Tahiyya-tul-Wudu. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 293-300, vol. 1)

Fifteen Makruhat of Wudu

  1. Sitting in a vile place for Wudu
  2. Draining the water used in Wudu in a vile place
  3. Dripping water droplets from wet Wudu organs into ewer etc. (While washing the face, drops of water usually fall into water carried in the hands. This should be avoided.)
  4. Spitting saliva, phlegm or rinsing mouth in the direction of Qiblah
  5. Using water in excess (Sadr-ush-Shariah Mufti Maulana Amjad ‘Ali رَحمَۃُ اللہِ تَعالٰی عَلَیہ says in Bahar-e-Shariat Part two, Page 23, Published in Madina-tul-Murshid Bareilly Sharif, “Half a handful of water is sufficient for sniffing into the nose, so taking a complete handful for nose in wastage.”)
  6. Using so less quantity of water that Sunnah cannot be followed. (Neither turn the tap on so much that causes wastage of water nor so less that causes difficulty in following Sunnah; instead it should be moderate.)
  7. Splashing water on face
  8. Blowing onto water while pouring over the face
  9. Washing the face with only one hand as this is a custom of Rawafid and Hindus
  10. Wiping the front of the neck
  11. Rinsing the mouth or sniffing water into the nose using left hand
  12. Cleaning the nose with the right hand
  13. Using three sets of unused water to moisten the head three times.
  14. Using hot water heated by sun beams
  15. Closing the eyes and lips tightly. If these parts remained unwashed due to be kept tightly closed, the Wudu would not be complete. To abandon any sunnah of Wudu is Makruh and to leave any Makruh of Wudu is Sunnah. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 300-301, vol. 1)

An Important Ruling about Used Water

If you are without Wudu and your hand, fingertip, fingernail, toenail or any other part of your body that must be washed during Wudu comes into contact with water covering less than the surface area of 25 square yards or 225 square feet for example, water in a bucket or tub, that water will become Musta’mal (used), and it can no longer be used for Wudu or Ghusl, regardless of whether this was done deliberately or unintentionally. Similarly, if Ghusl is due and any unwashed part of the body comes into contact with water, this water cannot be used for Wudu or Ghusl. However, it doesn’t matter if washed hand or washed part of body comes into contact with the water. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 333, vol. 1) (Please study part 2 of Bahar-e-Shariat for more information on Musta’mal water.)

Attention All Pan (Betel Leaves) Eaters
A’la Hadrat Imam Ahmad Raza Khan عَلَیّہِ رَحّمَۃُ الرَّحّمٰن says, “Those who are addicted to Pan know from experience that small particles of the Pan get stuck in all parts of the mouth (especially when there are gaps in the teeth) and rinsing the mouth three times or even ten times does not help in cleaning it properly. In fact, even using a toothpick or Miswak does not help, been mentioned in numerous Ahadis that when a person stands to offer Salah, an angel places mouth on his mouth and anything he recites comes out of his mouth and enters the mouth of the angel. If, at that time, there are particles of food stuck in his teeth, the angels feel so severe distress by it that nothing else cause so severe distress to them.

        Beloved Rasul of Allah صَلَّى اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَلَیّہِ وَسَلَّم said, “When you stand at night to offer Salah, you should clean your teeth with a Miswak because when you recite the Quran an angel places his mouth on yours and anything coming out of your mouth enters the mouth of that angel.” (shu’bul Iman, pp. 381, vol. 2, Hadis 2117) There is a report narrated by Hadrat Sayyiduna Abu Ayyub Ansari رَضِيَ اللهُ تَعَالٰی عَنهُ in the book Kabir written by Imam Tabarani رَحمَۃُ اللہِ تَعالٰی عَلَیہ that there is nothing more troublesome for both angels than seeing their companion offering Salah with pieces of food stuck in the teeth. (Mu’jam Kabir, pp. 177, vol. 4, Hadis 4061, Fatawa-e-Radaviyyah, pp. 624-625, vol. 1)

A Great Point of Tasawwuf (Sufism)
Hujja-tul-Islam Imam Muhammad Ghazali عَلَیہِ رَحّمَۃُاللہِ الوَالی says, ‘When you pay your attention towards Salah after completing you Wudu, now imagine: “The parts of my body that people can see are purified but standing in the court of Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ without a purified heart is shameful because Allah عَزَّ وَجَلَّ sees hearts as well.” He further adds, “One should remember that the sanctity of the heart lies in repentance, abandoning sins and adopting nice ethics. A person who neglects the inner purity and pays attention to the outer purity only is like a person who invites a king to his house for a feast and in order to please the king he cleans, polishes and colors the outside of his house but neglects the interior. How will the king feel when he enters his house and sees filth everywhere? Will he  be happy or displeased? Every wise person may understand how the king would react.” (Ihya-ul-‘Ulum, pp. 185, vol. 1)

Five Rulings Regarding Bleeding from Wound

  1. Blood, pus or yellowish fluid came out, flowed and it could reach to a part of the body that is Fard to be washed in Wudu or Ghusl, Wudu will become invalid. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 304, vol. 1)
  2. If the blood just emerged on the surface and did not flow, for example when the skin is cut slightly with the point of a sewing pin, knife or while using a toothpick or Miswak to clean your teeth or while biting an apple causing impression of blood on apple or if traces of blood seen on finger after inserting it into nose but not capable of flowing, Wudu will not be affected. (ibid)
  3. If it flows but not onto the surface of skin that must be washed in Wudu or Ghusl (e.g. you have a spot in your eye that bursts but the fluid remains within the eyelids or you feel bleeding inside your ear canal but the blood stays inside), Wudu will not be affected. (ibid, pp. 27)
  4. Even if the wound is quite large and the fluid is visible, Wudu will not become null (invalid) unless the fluid (pus/blood) flows from the wound. (ibid)
  5. If one kept on cleaning the emerging blood from the wound and did not let it flow, then ponder whether the cleaned quantity was capable of flowing or not. If yes, Wudu will become invalid and otherwise, not. (ibid)

Do Injections Nullify Wudu?

  1. In case of inter muscular injection, Wudu will become invalid provided blood comes out in such an amount that could flow.
  2. However, in case of Intravenous (IV) injection, blood is first drawn into the needle and its quantity is enough to make it capable of flow, hence it would nullify the Wudu.
  3. Similarly, when liquid glucose is injected into veins via a drip, the Wudu will no longer remain valid because in such cases blood rises into the tube in the amount that could flow. If somehow, blood does not enter the tube, Wudu will not be affected.
  4. Getting blood out of body through a syringe for a blood test will also nullify the Wudu. This blood is as impure as urine. Therefore, do not offer Salah with a bottle of blood in pocket.

Tears of an Ailing Eye

  1. Tears that flow out due to an infection or illness of the eyes are impure and would also nullify Wudu. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 310, vol. 1) Unfortunately, many people are unaware of this ruling and they mop away such tears like ordinary tears with their sleeves or clothes thus making their clothes impure.
  2. The fluid discharged from the eye of a blind man due to disease is impure and nullifies Wudu. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 306, vol. 1)
  3. Any fluid that is discharged from the human body but could not nullify Wudu is not impure. Examples are blood or pus that cannot flow, or vomit that is less than a mouthful. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 309, vol. 1)

Blisters and Pimples

  1. If a blister is burst by rubbing and its fluid flowed, Wudu would become invalid; otherwise not. (ibid, pp. 305)
  2. If the pimple has completely healed; just its dead skin has remained with an opening on the top and space inside, if water fills inside the skin that is pressed to take the water out; neither Wudu will become invalid nor that water is impure. However, if some wetness of blood etc. was present inside it, Wudu will become invalid and that ejected water is also impure. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 355-356, vol. 1)
  3. If there is no flowing fluid in pimple or if itching does not cause fluid-flowing; there is just stickiness, no matter how many times clothes touch it, they will remain pure. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 310, vol. 1)
  4. While cleaning the nose, if dried up blood came out, it would not affect the Wudu; however, repeating the Wudu is preferred. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 281, vol. 1)

When does Vomiting Nullify One’s Wudu?
Vomiting food or water that is a mouthful invalidates Wudu. It is considered a mouthful when it cannot be prevented easily. This vomit is as impure as urine, so it is vital to protect the clothes and body from being stained by it. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 306 etc, vol. 1)

Rulings about Laughing

  1. If an adult laughed in a Salah, consisting of Ruku’ and Sujud, so loudly that people in vicinity heard his laughing, his Wudu and Salah, both became invalid. If he laughed loudly such that only he listened to it, his Salah will become null (invalid) but there will be no effect on his Wudu. Smiling (without creating a sound) will not nullify Wudu and Salah. (Maraqil Falah, pp. 91)
  2. If one laughs loudly in a funeral prayer, his Salah will become invalid but there will be no effect on his Wudu. (ibid, pp. 92)
  3. Although laughing when not offering Salah does not invalidate Wudu, renewal of Wudu is Mustahab. (Maraqil Falah, pp. 84)
    Our Holy Prophet never laughed loudly so we should attempt to revive this Sunnah and avoid laughing loudly. Our beloved and blessed Prophet has said: “Smiling is from Allah عزوجل and laughing is from Satan.” (Al-Mujam-us-Saghir, pp. 104, vol. 2)

Does Looking at a Person’s Sitr Nullify Wudu?

Many amongst the public believe that unveiling one’s own knees or Sitr (private part of body below navel up to knees) or looking at one’s own or someone else’s knees or Sitr nullifies Wudu; this is a wrong concept. However, to keep the Sitr covered is one of the manners of Wudu; in fact the Sitr should be covered immediately after Istinja (excretion washing). To unveil the Sitr unnecessarily is prohibited and to unveil it before others is Haram. (Bahr-e-Shariat, pp. 309, vol. 1)

The Wudu Done during Ghusl is Sufficient

Once Wudu is done during Ghusl (ritual bath), It does not need to be repeated again. Even if one does not perform Wudu during Ghusl, he will be considered to have performed it because the organs of Wudu get washed during Ghusl. Changing clothes does not affect Wudu.

Blood in Saliva

  1. If there is bleeding in the mouth and the blood dominates the saliva, it will invalidate the Wudu; otherwise not. The blood will be considered dominant if the saliva is reddish and this saliva will be impure. If the saliva is yellowish in color, saliva will be considered dominant over blood and therefore the Wudu will not become invalid and this saliva will not be considered impure. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 305, vol. 1)
  2. In case of blood being dominant over saliva, taking water from a cup or container by touching mouth will render the container and all its contents impure. Hence, in such a case, it is advisable to take water in hand from the cup for rinsing of mouth. Also take care against sprinkling of this impure water on clothes.

Urine and Vomit of an Infant

  1. The urine of an infant, even a one day old, is as impure as of anybody else. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 390, vol. 1)
  2. If an infant vomits a mouthful of milk, it is as impure as urine, but if the milk has not reached the stomach and has reversed from the chest, it will not be impure. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 310, vol. 1)

Five Rulings about Uncertainty in Wudu

  1. If you are dubious as to whether or not you have washed a particular organ in Wudu and if this is the first such incident in your life, wash that organ and if you have had the same doubt occasionally, ignore it. If you have similar doubt after Wudu, ignore it. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 310, vol. 1)
  2. If you had Wudu but later had doubt whether or not it has become invalid, you are in the state of Wudu, because doubt does not affect the Wudu. (ibid, pp. 311)
  3. Repeating wudu in case of Waswasah (satanic whisperings) is not a caution; instead it is obedience to Satan. (ibid)
  4. Wudu will remain valid until you are so sure that you can swear that your Wudu has nullified.
  5. If you know that any organ has been left unwashed during Wudu, but cannot recall which one is that, wash your left foot. (Dur-re-Mukhtar, pp. 310, vol. 1)

If Dog Touches the Body

Clothes do not become impure if they come into contact with the body of a dog, even if it is wet. However, the saliva of dog is impure. (Bahar-e-Shariat, pp. 395, vol. 1)

When and When not Sleeping would Nullify Wudu
There are two coincident conditions for the invalidation of Wudu due to sleep:

  1. Both buttocks not being seated firmly
  2. Sleeping in a manner that does not prevent deep sleep

If both above conditions co-exist, sleeping would nullify the Wudu

            Following are ten positions of sleeping that do not effect Wudu

  1. Sitting with both buttocks seated on ground and both legs stretched out in one direction. (e.g. sitting on a chair, in a bus/train seat)
  2. Sitting with both buttocks on the ground and both shins encircled by hands; regardless of whether hands are on ground or head is rested onto the knees
  3. Sitting cross-legged, whether on ground or a bed etc.
  4. Sitting with folded legs and straight (as in Qa’dah)
  5. Sitting on a saddled horse or mule
  6. Sitting on the bare back of horse or mule provided it is walking uphill or on plain path
  7. Sleeping against a pillow with the buttocks firmly resting on the ground, even if he falls down on the removal of pillow
  8. Standing
  9. In Ruku’ position
  10. In the position defined for Sajdah of men according to Sunnah i.e. belly and thighs separated, arms and sides separated

Sleeping in above positions will not nullify Wudu. Even if one is in Salah, the Salah will not be nullified either, even if one sleeps deliberately. However, the part of Salah that is spent asleep must be repeated. If any act is offered partly awake and partly asleep, the part offered awake does not need to be repeated but the part offered asleep must be repeated.

Following are ten positions of sleeping that nullify Wudu;

  1. In a half sitting position (with the buttocks not touching the ground)
  2. Sleeping on one’s back
  3. Sleeping on one’s belly
  4. Sleeping on one’s side
  5. Sleeping with one elbow raised
  6. Sitting down leaning to one side with one or both buttocks lifted off the ground
  7. Sitting on the bare back of an animal walking downwards
  8. Sleeping in the position of Tashahhud with the stomach pressed against the thighs and both buttocks no pressed firmly
  9. Sitting with legs folded and head resting on thighs or shins
  10. In the position of Sajdah if it is done according to the female method (stomach pressed against the thighs, arms against sides, forearms on the ground)

Sleeping in any of these positions will nullify the Wudu regardless of whether or not a person is in Salah. However, deliberately sleeping in any of the mentioned postures will nullify the Salah too. If it is unintentional, only the Wudu will break and not the Salah. After completing Wudu, one can resume the Salah from where he left off (under certain conditions) but if he is unaware of the conditions he should start from the beginning. (Fatawa Radawiyyah (Jadid), pp. 365 to 367, vol. 1)